2 Chapter 1: Fitness Professionals, Coaches, and the Sports Medicine Team: Defining Roles
3 A Brief History of Sports Medicine Sports medicine & Athletic Training dates back to ancient RomeThe first “athletic trainers” were actually physicians who worked with the gladiatorsThe most famous of these ancient “trainers” was Herodicus of Megara, who is perhaps more famous for being the teacher of Hippocrates who is considered to be the father of modern medicine
4 A Brief History of Sports Medicine When the Roman Empire fell, interest in athletics declined and athletic training did not again emerge in history until the early 20th Century with the development of collegiate and professional athletic teams in the United StatesMany of the early athletic trainers were also the team managers, who happened to have an interest in medicine. Many of these people were “self taught” and are responsible for many of the athletic training techniques still used today.
5 A Brief History of Sports Medicine Today athletic trainers are the “jack of all trades” individuals that founded the profession, but rather highly trained professionals with a wide variety of specialized skillsToday, the NATA-BOC Certified Athletic Trainer plays a vital role in the daily health care of high school, collegiate, world class amateur, and professional athletesAs illustrated in the NATA video, Memories and Souvenirs, the history of athletic training in the United States is storied and rich
7 What is Sports Medicine? The term “sports medicine” means different things to different groupsSports medicine encompasses many specialized areas related to sportsAthletic Training is just one of thoseCan you think of some others?
8 Injury is a part of athletics Athletes have a right to expect that those that are overseeing their particular view their health and safety as a priorityCritical to have individuals that are aware of both treatment and preventionShould be able to recognize injury, provide basic medical assistance and refer injured individual to appropriate medical personnelWell-trained professionals are not always healthcare professionals and may be in violation if they attempt to provide treatment and care
9 Sports Medicine Organizations A number of professional organizations are dedicated to sports medicine and athletic trainingSome of these are noted here
10 Sports Medicine Injury Exercise Physiology Practice of Medicine HumanPerformanceInjuryManagementExercise PhysiologyPractice of MedicineBiomechanicsSports Physical TherapySport PsychologyAthletic TrainingSports NutritionSports Massage
11 Sports Medicine Organizations Professional organizations have many goals:To upgrade the field by devising and maintaining professional standards, including a Code of Ethics**Critical Thought….What is a Code of Ethics?To bring together professionally competent individuals to exchange ideas, stimulate research, and promote critical thoughtTo give individuals an opportunity to work as a group towards a single professional goal or purpose that they would not likely achieve as an individual
12 Historical Development of Sports Medicine Organizations International Federation of Sports Medicine (1928)American Academy of Family Physicians (1947)National Athletic Trainers Association (1950)American College of Sports Medicine (1954)American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (1972)National Strength and Conditioning Association (1978)American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee (1979)Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA (1981)NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports (1985)
13 The National Athletic Trainers’ Association Most athletic trainers belong to this organizationThe NATA only accepts individuals into its membership who have subscribed to certain rules, regulations, and are prepared to uphold the standards of the profession
14 Athletic Healthcare in Organized vs. Recreational Sports Activities Delivery of healthcare is dependent on whether the event is organized or recreationalOrganized activityGenerally competitiveInvolves teams, leagues (secondary schools, collegiate and professional teams)Players of the sports medicine team (coach, athletic trainer, physician) are employed on full- or part-timeCollege setting may also have nutritionist, sports psychologist, strength & conditioning coach, massage therapist
15 Recreational activity Can be competitive but often times is done more for leisure and is much less formalCity and community-based recreational leagues and teamsOften include fitness-oriented eventsSometimes recreational athlete will hire a personal fitness trainerIf injury occurs they are more likely to consult with a family physician, sports chiropractor or a sports physical therapistTypically, care provided on a fee for care basis
17 The Players on the Sports Medicine Team The primary athletic training team consists of the coach, the athletic trainer, and the team physicianThe major concern of everyone on this team should be the health and welfare of the athleteThe physician always has the final decision regarding the health care of athletes. The athletic trainer works in cooperation with the physician in making these decisions and caring for injuries/illnesses. The coach should always defer and support the medical staff in matters of athletic health care.
18 The Players on the Sports Medicine Team This is not to say that the coach should have no role in the decisions that are made. There may be particular drills or activities that an athlete should be doing in the course of recovering from an injury that coaches should assist withLikewise, communication is vital between the coach and medical staff to insure everyone is always on the same page
19 The Players on the Sports Medicine Team Another important part of the sports medicine team at the secondary school level is the athlete’s familyATCs must always be sure to keep parents informed of injuries suffered by their childrenATCs must also accept the fact that parents may insist on having their children examined by physicians other than the school’s team physicians
20 Responsibilities of the Coach All coaches should be certified in CPR and First Aid, especially if the school does not employ an ATC full-timeThey should have a thorough knowledge or proper training and skill techniques for the sport they are coachingFinally, coaches must work with ATCs to develop and understanding and awareness of each other’s responsibilities and difficulties in doing their jobs in order to function effectively
21 Roles and Responsibilities of the ATC The ATC is most directly responsible for all phases of health care in the athletic environment. Their responsibilities include:Preventing injuriesProviding initial first aid and injury managementEvaluating injuriesDesigning and implementing timely rehab programs that can return an athlete to participation
22 Roles and Responsibilities of the ATC Qualifications for an ATCThe ATC must be knowledgeable and competent in a variety of sports medicine specialties if he or she is to be effective in doing their jobThe NATA has established specific requirements that must be met for an individual to become an ATC, including specific academic and clinical course work in athletic training settingsAll ATCs take and pass the NATA BOC national certification examination
23 Roles and Responsibilities of the ATC The major roles and responsibilities of the athletic trainer include…Athletic injury prevention/risk managementRecognition, evaluation, and assessment of injuriesImmediate care of injuries and illnessesRehabilitation of injuriesHealth care organization and administrationProfessional development and responsibility
24 How does the Fitness Professional Relate to the Sports Medicine Team? Focus of the group is on improving performanceArgument can be made that by an athlete achieving a higher level of fitness, injuries are less likely to occurThe relationship between performance enhancement and injury prevention is critical
25 Personal Fitness Trainer Responsible for designing a comprehensive exercise program to meet an individuals needs and goals while also considering a person’s health historyField emerged in the 1970’s and expanded tremendously in the 1980’sBecome an incredibly fast growing and expansive fieldWork with all types of individualsNo single standard qualification for a person to practice as a fitness trainer
26 How does a Recreation Specialist Relate to the Sports Medicine Team? A recreation specialist plans, organizes, and oversees leisure activities and athletic programs in local recreation camp and park areas; in playground; in health clubs and fitness centers; in the workplace; and in theme parksRequired to ensure that the environment is safe.
27 Should an injury occur to a participant, they should be able to provide immediate and correct first aid and then refer for additional medical assistanceAll recreation specialist should be certified in CPR1,2,3 and in basic First Aid1,2 (Red Cross1, National Safety Council2 or American Heart Association3)
28 The Role of the Athletic Administrator in the Sports Medicine Team Has a significant impact on the sports medicine teamResponsible for hiring personnel (i.e. coaches, ATCs, strength coaches, nutritionists, team physician)Must be sure that all individuals have the necessary credentials and are willing to work as a team
29 Responsibilities of the Team Physician Athletic trainer works under direct supervision of physicianPhysician assumes a number of rolesServes to advise and supervise ATCPhysician and ATC must be able to work together
30 Compiling medical histories and conducting physical exams Pre-participation screeningDiagnosing injuryDeciding on disqualificationsPhysician must have the final say on when the athlete should return to activityAttending practice and gamesIt is imperative that the team physician promote and maintain consistently high quality care
31 Relationship Between the Sports Medicine Team and Athlete Primary concern should be that of the athleteAll individuals must work cooperatively in the best interest of the athleteCoach should differ to the medical staff and support decisions regarding athlete health careClose communication between all parties involved is critical
32 Other Members of the Sports Medicine Team PhysiciansDentistPodiatristNursePhysicians AssistantSports ChiropractorsPhysical TherapistMassage TherapistOrthotist/prosthetistEquipment PersonnelExercise PhysiologistBiomechanistNutritionistSport PsychologistEmergency Medical SpecialistsStrength & Conditioning CoachReferees
34 Summing up… Sports medicine team consists of whom? Coach, ATC, Team PhysicianPrimary responsibility of the coach?Insuring safe environment and equipmentPrimary responsibility of ATC?Prevention, care, and rehab of injuriesPrimary responsibility of Team Physician?PPE’s, diagnosis & treatment, supervising ATCName at least 4 other health care providers who may be members of the sports medicine team