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Social & Emotional Development of Infants Child Psychology II Mrs. Moscinski.

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Presentation on theme: "Social & Emotional Development of Infants Child Psychology II Mrs. Moscinski."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social & Emotional Development of Infants Child Psychology II Mrs. Moscinski

2 Emotional Development The process of learning to recognize and express feelings and to establish a personal identity A person who experiences healthy emotional development will be self- confident He or she will be able to handle stress and will have empathy for others

3 Emotions in Infancy Emotion – a feeling response to the world around us Parents can encourage positive emotions Ex: returning a baby’s smile Parents can help infants cope with negative emotions Rocking a frightened baby Infants will copy a caregiver’s reaction to a situation Ex: a baby whose caregiver is often anxious may learn to approach life with fear

4 Emotions and Crying Infants do not have words so they show many of their needs and emotions through crying At around 2 months they start to vary their cries for different feelings

5 Crying A baby is crying, what do you do? Check for physical needs Diaper change? Hungry? Too hot or cold? Need to be burped? Cuddling? Help going to sleep?

6 Self-Comforting Thumb sucking Sucking is a basic urge of infants Parents should only be concerned if thumb sucking starts to change the shape of the baby’s mouth or teeth Pacifier AAP recommends sleeping with one until 6 months to reduce risk of SIDS Should be large enough so it cannot fit inside a baby’s mouth whole Do not tie to wrist or neck Do not use to repalce food

7 Uncontrollable Crying Normal for infants to cry between 1-3 hours a day Colic Uncontrollable crying by an otherwise healthy baby 3 or more hours each day, 3 or more days a week, usually the same time each day Usually between 6 weeks to 3 months Solution could be switching formula, avoiding certain foods if breast-feeding, rubbing baby’s belly, burping more

8 Uncontrollable Crying Reflux A condition in which partially digested foods rises in the throat Can cause forceful vomiting and intense crying Talk to your pediatrician if you cannot figure out the cause of crying

9 Attachment & Emotional Development Attachment A baby’s bond to his or her caregiver A healthy attachment helps a baby develop trust, self-esteem and social and emotional skills Begins to develop in the first few months of life Fully formed around age 2 If not, the child may have trouble difficulty with relationships later in life

10 Attachment & Emotional Development Physical contact helps build attachment Infants need to be held and cuddled Touch is primary sense for infants Babies develop trust when caregivers meet their needs Caregivers need to be consistent Failure to Thrive a condition in which babies do not grow and develop properly – they do not respond to people and objects, cries weaken, smiles fade, become withdrawn

11 Temperament A person’s unique emotional make-up Helps determine how a baby reacts to his/her environment Temperament traits cannot be changed Parents should learn to adapt their reactions and responses to the child A parent’s temperament should not hinder the child’s (ex: low activity level adult should not force high-energy child to do sedentary activities)

12 Temperament 9 Traits Intensity Persistence Sensitivity Perceptiveness Adaptability Regularity Activity Approach Mood

13 Social Development The process of learning how to interact and express oneself with others Closely related to emotional development – children who feel good about themselves will feel good around others

14 Learning Cause & Effect A relationship between events in which, the effect, is caused by another event Ex: Imitation Watch behavior of important adults Adults should model expected behavior Send clear messages Ex:

15 Stranger Anxiety Begins around 6 months It is the fear of unfamiliar people, usually expressed through crying Never force a child to be with someone Act welcoming towards new people How do you deal with the situation?

16 Social Development Through Play Babies learn through play Play strengthens all areas of development Strengthen attachments with caregivers

17 Play from birth-6 months Use toys that the baby can grasp Place colorful toys where babies can recognize and reach for them Make noises Gently shake, stretch and exercise baby’s arms and legs Follow the baby’s lead

18 Play from 6-12 months More complicated games; Peek-a-boo Set toys out of reach so the baby has to crawl to get them, praise him Read simple books that have big pictures Sing silly songs and dance Give babies buckets, shovels, etc to use with water and sand

19 Create a Safe Play Environment for Infants Area free of dangers and that includes safe and interesting toys Use gates to block off dangerous areas, baby-proof Choose safe toys Big enough so it cannot fit in babies mouth No small parts

20 Social Development Through Exploration Babies have a need to explore Use all of their senses Babies use play to explore their world Caregivers should participate with the infant; deepens attachment Ex: take child to park and show them new things (leaves, flowers, etc)

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