2 What Is Money?Money is any asset that can easily be used to purchase goods and services.Fiat money : Money, such as paper currency, that is authorized by a central bank or governmental body and that does not have to be exchanged by the central bank for gold or some other commodity money.Commodity money: A good used as money that also has value independent of its use as money.Currency in circulation: Cash held by the public.Checkable bank deposits: Bank accounts on which people can write checks.Money Supply: The total value of financial assets in the economy that are considered money.
3 Roles of MoneyA medium of exchange is an asset that individuals acquire for the purpose of trading rather than for their own consumption.A store of value is a means of holding purchasing power over time.A unit of account is a measure used to set prices and make economic calculations.4. Money is useful because it can serve as a standard of deferred payment in borrowing and lending.
4 Measuring the Money Supply Monetary aggregate: An overall measure of the money supply.The Fed uses three measures of the money supply known as M1, M2, and M3.Near-moneys: Financial assets that can’t be directly used as a medium of exchange but can readily be converted into cash or checkable bank deposits.
5 M1M1 is the narrowest definition of the money supply and is also the most liquid.1 Currency, which is all the paper money and coins that are in circulation, where “in circulation” means not held by banks or the government2 The value of all checking account deposits at banks3 The value of traveler’s checks (although this last category is so small—less than $7 billion in May 2007—we will ignore it in our discussion of the money supply)
6 M1 = $1,368.4 (billions of dollars), June 2005 M1 is equally split between currency in circulation and checkable bank deposits.
13 Because balances in checking account deposits are included in the money supply, banks play an important role in the process by which the money supply increases and decreases.
14 Monetary Role of BanksFinancial intermediary: Uses liquid assets in the form of bank deposits to finance the illiquid investments of borrowers. Bank reserves: Currency banks hold in their vaults plus their deposits at the Federal Reserve. These don’t count as “currency in circulation.” Reserve ratio: Fraction of bank deposits that a bank holds as reserves.
16 Reserves: Deposits that a bank keeps as cash in its vault or on deposit with the Federal Reserve. Required reserves: Reserves that a bank is legally required to hold, based on its checking account deposits.Required reserve ratio: The minimum fraction of deposits banks are required by law to keep as reserves.Excess reserves: Reserves that banks hold over and above the legal requirement.Fractional reserve banking system: A banking system in which banks keep less than 100 percent of deposits as reserves.Balance Sheet for Wachovia Bank, December 31, 2006FOMCDiscount policyReserve Policy
17 T-Account T-account summarizes a bank’s financial position. Can use this link to look up the financial position of FDIC insured banks
18 How Banks Create MoneyIf banks did not exist, the money supply would simply be equal to the amount of currency in circulation.Remember that “Checkable Deposits” ARE INCLUDED in the money supply measure M1.Because banks lend out the majority of their deposits the total checkable deposits can exceed the amount of currency in circulation.Thus, banks “create money”
19 Bank RegulationsCapital Requirements - regulators require that the owners of banks hold substantially more assets than the value of bank deposits. In practice, banks’ capital is equal to 7% or more of their assets. Additional capital can come from investors in the bank.
20 Bank RegulationsReserve Requirements - rules set by the Federal Reserve that determine the minimum reserve ratio for a bank. For example, in the United States, the minimum reserve ratio for checkable bank deposits is 10%.
21 Excess Reserves and Deposits Excess Reserves: Bank reserves over and above its required reserves. i.e. Money available for lending.Example:$10 Million in Deposits / 10% Reserve Requirement (rr)What is the Minimum $$ Reserve Requirement?Before making any loans, how much is available to lend as “Excess Reserves”?
22 Bank RunsA bank run is a phenomenon in which many of a bank’s depositors try to withdraw their funds due to fears of a bank failure. Bank panic: A situation in which many banks experience runs at the same time. Historically, they have often proved contagious, with a run on one bank leading to a loss of faith in other banks, causing additional bank runs.
23 Bank RegulationsDeposit Insurance - guarantees that a bank’s depositors will be paid even if the bank can’t come up with the funds. The FDIC currently guarantees the first $100,000 of each account. What negative consequences might there be from providing deposit insurance?
24 How Do Banks Create Money? Learning Objective 13.3How Do Banks Create Money?Using T-Accounts to Show How a Bank Can Create Money
25 How Do Banks Create Money? Learning Objective 13.3How Do Banks Create Money?Using T-Accounts to Show How a Bank Can Create MoneyAssuming 1 bank in the economy and no one holds and cash
26 MAKE A IN-CLASS PROBLEM WITH THE PROBLEM IN NOTES!!
32 The Money MultiplierRecall “The Multiplier” from our discussion of MPC and GDP. “Fractional Reserve Banking” has a similar multiplying effect from lending out deposits in multiple rounds.
33 The Money MultiplierAssume a “Checkable Deposits Only” economy. i.e. All money is put in the bank, no currency is held in circulation. Increase in Bank Deposits from an initial $1,000 in excess reserves.So if the reserve ratio is 10%, or 0.1, a $1,000 increase in reserves will increase the total value of bank deposits by $1,000/0.1 = $10,000. In fact, in a deposits-only monetary system the total value of bank deposits would be equal to the value of bank reserves divided by the reserve ratio. Or to put it a different way, if the reserve ratio is 10%, each dollar of reserves supports $1/rr = $1/0.1 = $10 of bank deposits.
34 The Money MultiplierTotal Increase in Deposits = $1,000/rr So, if the Reserve Requirement (rr) = 10% what is the total increase in deposits? Answer: $10,000 This means that each $1 of reserves supports $10 in checkable deposits in the system.
36 Money Multiplier: In Reality The monetary base is the sum of currency in circulation and bank reserves. The money multiplier is the ratio of the money supply to the monetary base.Money Multiplier =Money Supply÷Monetary BaseIt is different from the money supply, bank deposits plus currency in circulation. Each dollar of bank reserves backs several dollars of bank deposits, making the money supply larger than the monetary base.
38 The Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve is a central bank—an institution that oversees and regulates the banking system, and controls the monetary base. “Independent” means it is not really part of the U.S. government, but it is not really private either.
39 The Federal Reserve System Board of Governors in Washington, D.C.7 Members Appointed by the President and Confirmed by the Senate for 14 Year TermsThe Chairman is appointed every 4 years but usually serves for long periods.Twelve Federal Reserve Banks serving their respective 12 geographic regions in the U.S.
40 Federal Reserve Districts To which Federal Reserve District does Wyoming belong?
41 Monetary policy The actions the Federal Reserve takes to manage the money supply Open Market OperationsFederal Open Market Committee (FOMC) The Federal Reserve committee responsible for open market operations and managing the money supply in the United States.Open market operations The buying and selling of Treasury securities by the Federal Reserve in order to control the money supply.Discount PolicyDiscount loans Loans the Federal Reserve makes to banks.Discount rate The interest rate the Federal Reserve charges on discount loans.Reserve RequirementsWhen the Fed reduces the required reserve ratio, it converts required reserves into excess reserves.
44 The Quantity Theory of Money The Quantity Theory Explanation of InflationQuantity theory of money: A theory of the connection between money and prices that assumes that the velocity of money is constant.In the early twentieth century, Irving Fisher, an economist at Yale, formalized the connection between money and prices using the quantity equation:We can rewrite the above equation by taking logs as:M+V=P+YGrowth rate of the money supply + Growth rate of velocity = Growth rate of the price level (or inflation rate) + Growth rate of real outputM=total money supplyV=velocityP=total pricesY=total GDP
45 Velocity Approach to Money Demand Velocity of money: The average number of times each dollar in the money supply is used to purchase goods and services included in GDP.The velocity of money is nominal GDP divided by the nominal quantity of money.According to the velocity of money approach to money demand, the real quantity of money demanded is proportional to real aggregate spending.Nominal GDPNominal GDP
46 The Quantity Theory of Money The Quantity Theory Explanation of InflationThe growth rate of the price level is just the inflation rate, so we can rewrite the quantity equation to help us understand the factors that determine inflation:Inflation rate = Growth rate of the money supply + Growth rate of velocity − Growth rate of real outputIf Irving Fisher was correct that velocity is constant, then the growth rate of velocity will be zero. This allows us to rewrite the equation one last time:Inflation rate = Growth rate of the money supply − Growth rate of real output
47 Quantity Theory of Money M and P will generally move in the same direction!Printing money causes inflation !!!If V and Y are fixed then both = zero
48 U.S. Example to Prove It Calculate Change in Y (real GDP): Real GDP Q3 2006: 11,336.7 billionReal GDP Q3 2007: 11,630.7 billion2.59 %Calculate Change in P (CPI):CPI October 2006: 201.8CPI October 2007:3.52%
49 U.S. Example to Prove Relationship So, using the Quantity Theory and real data on the U.S. economy we would predict that the U.S. Money Supply increased by 6.11%What really happened? Let’s look up M2 which is our best measure of the Money Supply.
50 The Quantity Theory of Money The Quantity Theory Explanation of InflationThis equation leads to the following predictions:1 If the money supply grows at a faster rate than real GDP, there will be inflation.2 If the money supply grows at a slower rate than real GDP, there will be deflation. (Recall that deflation is a decline in the price level.)3 If the money supply grows at the same rate as real GDP, the price level will be stable, and there will be neither inflation nor deflation.
52 The Quantity Theory of Money High Rates of InflationVery high rates of inflation—in excess of hundreds or thousands of percentage points per year—are known as hyperinflation.Economies suffering from high inflation usually also suffer from very slow growth, if not severe recession.
53 The German Hyperinflation of the Early 1920s Making the ConnectionThe German Hyperinflation of the Early 1920sDuring the hyperinflation of the 1920s, people in Germany used paper currency to light their stoves.