Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Macroeconomics: Taxes, Fiscal, and Monetary Policies Chapters 16.2 Economics Mr. Biggs."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 7 Macroeconomics: Taxes, Fiscal, and Monetary Policies Chapters 16.2 Economics Mr. Biggs
Serving Government For its banking needs, the federal government turns to the Federal Reserve. Federal Government’s Banker The Federal Reserve serves as the banker for the United States government. It maintains a checking account for the Treasury department. For example, if you receive a check from the federal government and cash it at your local bank, the Federal Reserve deducts that amount from the Treasury’s account. Federal Reserve Functions
Government Securities Auctions The Federal Reserve serves as a financial agent for the Treasury Department. It sells, transfers, and redeems government T-bills, T-notes, and T-bonds. It also makes interest payments on these securities. It periodically auctions off government T-bills, T-notes, and T-bonds and deposits the funds into the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Issuing Currency The Federal Reserve issues paper currency (Federal Reserve Notes), which is printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. As bills become worn or torn, the Federal Reserve takes them out of circulation and replaces them with fresh ones.
Serving Banks The Federal Reserve also provides services to banks throughout the nation. Its most visible function is its check-clearing services. It also lends to banks that need to borrow to maintain legally required reserves. Check Clearing Check clearing - The process by which banks record whose accounts give up money and whose accounts receives money when a customer writes a check.
Supervising Lending Practices To ensure stability in the banking system, the Federal Reserve monitors bank reserves throughout the system. It also studies proposed bank mergers and bank holding company charters to insure competition. Bank holding company - A company that owns more than one bank. It also protects consumers by enforcing truth- in-lending laws, which requires sellers to provide full and accurate information about loan terms.
Lender of Last Resort Normally, Federal Reserve banks lend federal funds to each other from their reserve balances at the federal funds rate. Federal funds rate - Interest rate Federal Reserve banks charge each other for loans. The Federal Reserve acts as a lender of last resort, making emergency loans at the discount rate to commercial banks so they can maintain required reserves. Discount rate - Rate the Federal Reserve charges for loans to commercial banks. Regulating the Banking System The Federal Reserve coordinates all regulatory activities by the various state and federal authorities.
Reserves The US banking system operates as a fractional reserve banking system. Banks hold in reserve only a fraction of their funds and then lends out what remains. Everyday, banks report to the Federal Reserve about its reserves and activities. The Fed then uses these reserves to control how much money is in circulation at any one time. Bank Examinations The Federal Reserve periodically examines banks unexpectedly to make sure that they are following sound lending practices. Bank examiners can force banks to sell risky investments and can classify them as problem banks if they have taken excessive risks or have a low net worth. Net worth - Total assets minus total liabilities.
Regulating the Money Supply The Federal Reserve’s most widely known job is considering the indicators of the money supply (M1,M2, and M3) and comparing those figures with the likely demand for money. Factors that Affect Demand for Money People hold money for a variety of reasons and the amount of money that individuals hold depends generally on four factors: Cash needed on hand Interest rates Price levels in the economy General level of income Stabilizing the Economy The laws of supply and demand affect money and it is the Fed’s job to keep the money supply stable. For example, too much money in the economy leads to inflation.