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Causes of the American Revolution. The French and Indian War 1754 -1763.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the American Revolution. The French and Indian War 1754 -1763."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the American Revolution

2 The French and Indian War 1754 -1763

3 The French and Indian War

4 The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers 1682 – The French explorer La Salle reached the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed it and everything it touched for France This extended into French control of the Ohio River The British began to settle the Ohio River valley This infringed on French territory

5 Rivers

6 The French and Indian War Not the French and Indians fighting each other! France and Great Britain were fighting each other for supremacy in North America Great Britain had the 13 colonies France had holdings in Canada (New France) and along the Mississippi River

7 French and British Colonies

8 Who Fought Whom Many Native American tribes fought on the side of the French The French had established trade with many tribes The British often angered the Native Americans by taking their land The British had the Iroquois confederation fighting on their side

9 Native Americans and Europeans

10 Frontier Fighting The war was fought in the frontier, not in the established cities Frontier means the areas of a colony or state that aren’t completely settled The first part of the war was in the frontier areas of Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, and New England

11 Ohio River Valley

12 Bad Beginnings Several defeats for the British in the beginning of the war George Washington surrendered at Fort Necessity Other British forts throughout the frontier were defeated

13 Fort Necessity and George Washington

14 Turning Point 1757 – New Prime Minister, William Pitt the Elder William Pitt increased aid to the British forces in North America The British captured several French forts The French had a few victories


16 The End of the War The British captured the New France city of Quebec in 1760 France ceded rights to North America in 1763 in the Treaty of Paris


18 Effects of the War Britain controlled North America from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River But wouldn’t let the colonists settle there – Indian Reserve Left colonists with military experience Great Britain had to pay for the war and the soldiers to protect the new lands To pay for this, they taxed the colonists

19 No Taxation Without Representation The colonists were all the way over in North America Parliament made the decisions in Britain England decided that someone had to pay for the war Decided to tax the colonists Didn’t ask the representative of the 13 British colonies

20 No Taxation Without Representation!

21 Sugar Act Tax on sugar passed in 1764 First tax to pay for French and Indian War

22 Sugar Loaf

23 The Stamp Act of 1765 Two years after the Treaty of Paris A tax on all printed goods – books, legal documents, newspapers – even playing cards! Taxes must be paid in cold hard cash Most colonists traded – had little actual money

24 The Stamp Act

25 Colonists Fight the Stamp Act Refused to buy the stamped goods – called a ‘boycott’ Mobs often intimidated the officials in charge, called the stamp agents

26 The Stamp Act Congress Representatives from 9 colonies met Petitioned Parliament to revoke the Stamp Act British merchants also protested the Stamp Act, because they didn’t make as much money with people boycotting the Stamp Act First official gathering of the colonists The congress told the colonists that resistance was entirely correct

27 Repeal! Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766 BUT! Passed the Declaratory Act Stated that Parliament’s right to make laws was the same in Britain as it was in the colonies

28 Repeal of the Stamp Act

29 Sons of Liberty Started because of the Stamp Act Helped colonists fight the British rulings Introduced many major people in the American Revolution Daughters of Liberty was the women’s group

30 Sons of Liberty

31 Quartering Act Quarter means to house soldiers and give them food The Quartering Act forced colonists to quarter British solider and feed them at their own expense

32 Townshend Acts Townshend Acts were a new series of taxes on the colonists Meant to pay for the upkeep of the British colonies Items taxed included imports such as paper, tea, glass, lead and paints Enacted in 1767 The boycott of British goods, spurred on by the Sons of Liberty, increases


34 The Boston Massacre A mob harasses a group of British soliders Someone throws a snowball A soldier fires into the crowd Violence erupts Crispus Attucks, a runaway slave, was considered the first man to die for the cause of independence Five colonists ended up dying The soldiers went to trial and were later freed by John Adams

35 Boston Massacre

36 Repeat Repeals Townshend Act is repealed The Quartering Act is not renewed Only tea remains to be taxed

37 Boston Tea Party Led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere Three ships in the Boston harbor were emptied of their tea chests Colonists dressed up like Mohawk Indians

38 What’s Wrong With This Picture?


40 Intolerable Acts Passed in response to the Boston Tea Party Four parts: – Closed Boston’s harbor – Put in a British governor – British officials could go back to England for trial – Quartering was put back in place


42 First Continental Congress First national American government Representative from twelve colonies were sent Met in Philadelphia in 1774 Met as a response to the Intolerable Acts Called for peace, liberty, and security Asked colonists not to import British goods and to form militia Said they would meet next year


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