Presentation on theme: "The Road to the Civil War 17-3, 18-1, 18-2, and 18-3."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to the Civil War 17-3, 18-1, 18-2, and 18-3
Slavery Enters Politics Silence on the issue of slavery Abolitionists broke the silence n the 1840s Would new lands be free or slave?
Debate over Slavery South John C. Calhoun Supported slavery Said slaves were better off than northern factory workers North Said South was poorer because in the North labor was free
1846 – The Wilmot Proviso Proposed by David Wilmot in the House Forbade slavery in lands won from Mexico Defeated in the Senate
The Free Soilers Defended rights of free white workers Became involved in politics Wanted new states and territories to be free soil
The Election of 1848 Democrats nominated Lewis Cass Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor New party, Free Soil Party, nominated Martin Van Buren Taylor won
Gold Rush Gold was discovered in CA in 1848 Miners rushed to CA in 1849 – called “Forty- niners” Needed a government because of growing population CA constitution forbade slavery
Compromise of 1850 CA admitted to Union as a free state No restriction on slavery in land won from Mexico End slave trade in DC Fugitive Slave Law – federal authorities help slave-holders capture runaway slaves Congress declared it had no power to interfere with the interstate slave trade
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Book by Harriet Beecher Stowe Showed how slavery hurt the family Helped people feel the fears and pains of slaves Attacked Fugitive Slave Law
Personal Liberty Laws Passed by Vermont Helped accused slaves obtain a lawyer Made it illegal to use state or local jails to hold them Some charged with kidnapping and false arrest any Southern slaveholders who entered free territory in search of slaves
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Introduced by Stephen Douglas in 1854 Organize 2 territories, Kansas and Nebraska Should be admitted as free according to Missouri Compromise Proposed to be admitted under popular sovereignty Why?
The Election of 1856 New party, Republican Party, was against the spread of slavery into new territories Republican nominee: John C. Fremont Democratic nominee: James Buchanan New party, American or “Know-Nothing” Party, opposed Catholics and immigrants Close election, but Buchanan won
Dred Scott v. Sandford Dred Scott – Bought in Missouri (slave) – Moved to Illinois (free) – Returned to Missouri Owner died, so Scott claimed to be free Title went to his owner’s brother-in-law, John F. A. Sanford Case went to Supreme Court
Dred Scott v. Sandford The Issues Did Scott have a right to bring a case into federal courts? Had Scott become a free man by living for a time in a free state and in a free territory? Was the Missouri Compromise constitutional? The Decision Blacks were not citizens of the US Scott had not become free by living in a free state The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (Congress cannot deprive a person of property without due process of law – violates 5 th Amendment)
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln debated in preparation for the Illinois Senatorial election in 1858 Lincoln asked Douglas: Is there any way the people of a territory can keep slavery from their land before they were organized into a state?
The Freeport Doctrine Douglas said, yes, all they have to do is refuse to pass a slave code A slave code defined a slave’s status and the rights of a slave owner Douglas won Senate seat, but lost support of South
Bleeding Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act opened Kansas to popular sovereignty Pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers rushed in trying to sway the vote Pro-slavery and anti-slavery voters elected a legislature and wrote state constitutions for Kansas Violence broke out
Pottawatomie Creek Massacre John Brown (antislavery) led 7 men to a proslavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek Killed 5 men and left their bodies as a warning to other proslavery settlers
Caning of Charles Sumner There was much Senate debate over the admission of Kansas as a slave state Charles Sumner made a two-day speech against slavery, calling out Andrew Butler of SC Butler’s cousin, Preston Brooks, beat Sumner (almost to death) with a cane Sumner became a martyr for the antislavery movement Brooks became a hero to proslavery Southerners
Harper’s Ferry 1859 – John Brown led a raid against the oldest slave state – Virginia Led 18 men to Harper’s Ferry and seized the federal arsenal Marines under Robert E. Lee recaptured the arsenal Brown was tried for treason and for inciting an uprising Convicted and hanged in Virginia