Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: Plants. Site of photosynthesis Leaf cells absorb energy from sunlight through organelles called chloroplasts. When solar energy is absorbed,"— Presentation transcript:
Site of photosynthesis Leaf cells absorb energy from sunlight through organelles called chloroplasts. When solar energy is absorbed, the plant cell uses it to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen
Gas exchange Gas exchange between the interior of the plant and its environment Epidermis contains pores through which gases can pass in and out. In photosynthesis, the plant uses CO2 and releases O2 and H2O vapours through these pores.
palisade mesophyll (region directly under the upper epidermis). The tightly packed, elongated arrangement maximizes the amount of light the plant can collect for photosynthesis spongy mesophyll (region directly beneath the palisade). The loosely packed layer with lots of air spaces allow for gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere through stomata.
A stoma (plural: stomata) is an opening in the epidermis of a leaf, through which gases pass in and out. Two kidney-shaped cells, called guard cells, control the opening and closing of a stoma. In terrestrial plants, most of the stomata are in the lower epidermal layer, below the spongy mesophyll.
When stomata are open, carbon dioxide can enter the leaf and oxygen can escape. This helps the plant photosynthesize. Ideally, plants would open their stomata whenever it was sunny. However, when stomata are open, water vapour can also escape. How is this problematic?
A very thin leaf could dry out and die very quickly on a sunny or windy day. Preventing too much water loss is therefore a major concern for many plants.
If there is a good supply of water within the leaf, the guard cells expand and bend apart -- opening the stomata. If there is a shortage of water, the guard cells become soft and collapse -- closing the stomata.
Guard cells also have a mechanism that responds to light levels. This lets them close the stomata at night when carbon dioxide is not needed because there is not light for photosynthesis.
In leaves, the vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) are arranged into veins that run through the spongy mesophyll. Xylem carries water, mineral and nutrients upwards from the roots to the top of the plant. Phloem carries food(sugars) from one part of a plant to another. It can move upwards or downwards.
Photosynthesis Light is used with Carbon dioxide from the air and water from the root system to produce glucose and oxygen. This occurs during the day. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Light Energy = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration The glucose is broken down (with oxygen from the air) to create ATP with carbon dioxide and water as by products. C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 ----------> 6CO 2 +6H 2 O+36ATP