13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Abolished slavery
President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Pardon crimes for Confederate officers * to convince them to join union * accept end to slavery * Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South. * Plan would be recognized when 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty
Why did President Lincoln favor a lenient policy towards the South?
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) By Radical Republicans Wanted terms much more difficult for southern whites to accept made it impossible for Confederate states RESULT: Less confederate states would return to Union Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
President Andrew Johnson Elected after Lincoln was assassinated
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Congress forms the Freedmen’s Bureau. Counteracts the Black Codes
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Organized to help ex- slaves with Food medical care resettlement education
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Successes of Freedmen’s Bureau Gained support quickly from African AmericansGained support quickly from African Americans Elected as officials by African American votersElected as officials by African American voters BuiltBuilt –Schools –Churches Modernize the SouthModernize the South
Struggles of Freedmen’s Bureau Were accused of having ulterior motivesWere accused of having ulterior motives Were not looking out for the best interest of African AmericansWere not looking out for the best interest of African Americans
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Made most Confederate states eligible for pardons if they became loyal Created easy terms so Confederate states could return to their place in Union States had to hold constitutional convention Write new constitution to void Slavery Ratify 13 th Amendment Stop payments of state war debts
Things didn’t work out… Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. Revival of the South BLACK CODES
Black Codes Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers Plantation owners would rent land to black families. Give 1/3 of crop to plantation owner
Southern rulesSouthern rules Blacks could not own gunsBlacks could not own guns They could only own property in the ‘black’ part of town (less desirable areas).They could only own property in the ‘black’ part of town (less desirable areas). Not allowed to testify in courtNot allowed to testify in court They could be arrested for being rude to whites or for not having a job.They could be arrested for being rude to whites or for not having a job. Black Codes
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee * for rights of freed people. Southern states would be punished denying the right to vote to black citizens!
Johnson tries to impede Radical ReconstructionJohnson tries to impede Radical Reconstruction February, 1868--Congress impeachesFebruary, 1868--Congress impeaches Uses Tenure Act as an excuse Real cause is differences over Reconstruction Senate refuses to convict JohnsonSenate refuses to convict Johnson Radical Republicans seen as subversive of Constitution, lose publics supportRadical Republicans seen as subversive of Constitution, lose publics support Johnson Impeached
15 th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It gives black males the right to vote.
What two laws did the Radical Republicans pass to reduce presidential power?
Complete the Graphic Organizer below to explain how each listed piece of legislation affected African Americans LegislationEffect Black Codes Civil rights Act of 1866 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment