Presentation on theme: "The Romantic Era. The Romantic Period Approximately 1810-1900 Growth of established forms; such as opera, mass, symphonies and concertos. Greater experimentation."— Presentation transcript:
The Romantic Period Approximately 1810-1900 Growth of established forms; such as opera, mass, symphonies and concertos. Greater experimentation and freedom to explore timbre and harmony as the orchestra expands. Associations with other art forms and artists – writers, poets, artists and other musicians.
Romantic Composers Beethoven (d.1827) Mendelssohn Chopin Brahms Rossini Mahler Dvorak Sibelius Tchaikovsky
Revision – Opera 1 In the early Romantic era, opera fell into two categories – Italian and German. Italian opera tended to focus on memorable melodies, whereas German opera was more concerned with dramatic plotlines than exciting tunes. Italian early Romantic – The Barber of Seville Rossini German early Romantic – Fidelio Beethoven Watch Figaro’s aria from The Barber of Seville by Rossini – hear the frequent use of repetition and imitation by the orchestra and the changes in tempo for dramatic effect. At the end of the clip, listen as the music goes between chords I, IV and V before ending – what is the final cadence? Clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qHZkkgowdYhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qHZkkgowdY
Revision – Opera 2 In the later half of the Romantic era, Bizet was the most prolific composer of opera from France. Two of his operas remain popular today – The Pearl Fishers and Carmen, which includes the famous Toreadors’ Song and Habanera. Wagner was the principal opera composer of the Romantic period. His compositions are notable for their rich chromaticism, harmonies and orchestration. He preferred his works to be known as ‘music dramas’, the merging of all the theatre arts of music, drama, staging, scenery, costumes and lighting into one form… Clip at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xeRwBiu4wfQhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xeRwBiu4wfQ
Revision - Symphony Composers in the Romantic era began to explore the new harmonies and textures available to them. Frequently composers would write pieces with a stimulus in mind – like the final movement of the Symphonie Fantastique by Berlioz… Sonata form 2 subjects in exposition Descending scales Counter melody Polyphony Analysis video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4tMQATUUj0https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4tMQATUUj0
Revision - Concerto Copy and complete: “A concerto is a work for a ____ instrument accompanied by _________. In the Romantic Period the 3 movement form became less strict and composers such as Mendelssohn and Bruch experimented with joining movements together. The _______ was still included however, a flashy passage for the solo instrument, which features a _____ at its conclusion to mark the end and the return to the orchestra.
Schumann Piano Concerto Op.54 Listen to the beginning of Schumann’s Piano Concerto in A minor and listen out for the rubato. Rubato is a common feature in Romantic piano music and is frequently used in performances of Chopin’s piano music. Rubato – a rhythmic ‘give and take’ in a phrase allowing more expression.
Schumann Piano Concerto Op.54 Listen to the end of the movement where the cadenza is featured – there is a dramatic dominant 7 th chord from the orchestra before the piano takes over… Also listen for the return of the main theme, veiled by trills in the right hand. Use video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hs18Z561tn8https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hs18Z561tn8
Higher Revision - Mass Listen to a movement from Rossini’s Petite Messe Solennelle - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSMrna0e2II http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GSMrna0e2II 1.Use one word to describe the orchestral texture in the introduction. 2.Name the final cadence before the singers enter. 3.Which movement from the mass is this? 4.What is the group of singers called that sing in this movement?
Higher – New Learning for the Romantic Era Lied - This term (the German word for song) refers specifically in the Romantic era to works for solo voice and piano. The text is German. Famous composers of Lied: Schubert Schumann Brahms Lied can be written for any of the four voice types – soprano, alto, tenor or bass – but examples are frequently male (tenor). The structure of the verses is either strophic or through-composed.
Styles of Lieder Through composed refers to music that is written all the way through without repetition or return of musical material. A (non Romantic) example is Bohemian Rhapsody by Queen. In strophic music, the same melody is used with new lyrics. Most pop songs are strophic – the verse music repeats with different lyrics each time and the chorus section repeats. Listen to this song from Schubert’s song cycle Die Schone Mullerin (1823) – it is an example of a strophic song. Audio - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8iEV6oX83WUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8iEV6oX83WU Score - http://burrito.whatbox.ca:15263/imglnks/usimg/1/11/IMSLP33661- SIBLEY1802.6511.16681.5f4c-film1936heft1.pdfhttp://burrito.whatbox.ca:15263/imglnks/usimg/1/11/IMSLP33661- SIBLEY1802.6511.16681.5f4c-film1936heft1.pdf Listen to Der Erlkonig by Schubert’s (1823) – each stanza has new music as the story hears from a new character – it is an example of a through-composed song. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XP5RP6OEJI