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C HAPTER 19: F REUDIAN & H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Introduction to Psychology Virginia Union University.

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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 19: F REUDIAN & H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Introduction to Psychology Virginia Union University."— Presentation transcript:

1 C HAPTER 19: F REUDIAN & H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Introduction to Psychology Virginia Union University

2 T HE M YERS B RIGGS T YPE I NDICATOR (MBTI) The MBTI is a questionnaire designed to measure preferences in how people perceive the world & make decisions Differences are sorted into 4 dichotomous categories, resulting in 16 different personality types Attitudes: Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) Perceiving/Understanding: Sensing (S) vs. Intuitive (N) Judgments: Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) Action Orientation: Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P) What were your results on the Myers Briggs & do they accurately describe you?

3 D EVELOPMENT ACCORDING TO F REUD How we develop is based on how we deal with conflicts that occur during 5 different stages of our lives Stages known as Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development 5 developmental periods marked by potential conflict between parent and child Oral Anal Phallic Latency Genital Conflicts arise as child seeks pleasure from different body areas associated with sexual feelings (erogenous zones) Child’s 1 st five years most important in personality development Each Psychosexual stage can be seen as a source of potential conflict between the child & their parents

4 P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT How a person deals with psychosexual conflicts influences later personality development One way to resolve conflicts (wanting to but not being allowed to by your parents) is by becoming fixated at a particular stage of development Fixation can occur during any of the 1 st 3 stages of development Individual locked into a stage because their desires were either over- or undergratified

5 5 STAGES OF P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT Oral Stage Infancy – 18 months Pleasure seeking is centered on the mouth Potential conflict: the weaning process, child becomes less dependent on caretakers Fixation: adults who overeat, smoke or like to chew gum Person may have problems with dependency

6 5 STAGES OF P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT Anal Stage 1 ½ - 3 years Pleasure seeking is centered on the anus and its function in elimination Potential conflict: toilet training, child learns to control their bodily needs Fixation: adults become very neat, stingy or behaviorally rigid (anal retentive) or generous, messy or very loose & carefree (anal expulsive)

7 5 STAGES OF P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT Phallic Stage 3-6 years Pleasure seeking centered on the genitals Potential conflict : The Oedipus Complex (child competes with the parent of the same sex for the affections & pleasures of the opposite sex parent) Boys – castration anxiety Girls – penis envy Fixation: Men who try to prove their toughness, women feeling inferior to men

8 5 STAGES OF P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT Latency Stage 6 years – Puberty Potential conflict: Sexual thoughts & feelings are repressed & redirected into nonsexual activities, like developing social & intellectual skills

9 5 STAGES OF P SYCHOSEXUAL D EVELOPMENT Genital Stage Puberty – adulthood Potential conflict: Renewed sexual desires now sought to be fulfilled through relationships with other people Ability to meet this conflict depends on how conflicts in the 1 st 3 stages were resolved Fixation – less energy available to resolve conflict in genital stage & less likely to develop a healthy & mature personality

10 C RITICS OF F REUD ’ S T HEORY Carl Jung Collective unconscious, not sex, was the basic force behind personality Collective unconscious: ancient memory traces & symbols passed on by birth & shared by all people in all cultures Formed analytical psychology Alfred Adler Humans motivated by social urges, not biological ones Each person is a social being with a unique personality Child development influenced by sibling influences & child-rearing practices Formed individual psychology Karen Horney Objected to Freud’s view of women as dependent, vain & submissive (also did not agree with the idea of penis envy) Major influence on personality development was child-parent social interactions Conflicts avoidable if child raised in a loving environment

11 N EO -F REUDIANS Generally agreed with Freud’s basic ideas (i.e. the unconscious, the id, ego & superego) But disagreed with placing much emphasis on biological forces, sex drives & psychosexual stages Turned Freud’s psychodynamic theory away from bio drives towards psychosocial & cultural influences


13 H UMANISTIC T HEORIES Emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development of our potential, and freedom to choose our destiny

14 3 C HARACTERISTICS OF H UMANISTIC T HEORIES 1. Phenomenological Perspective your perception or view of the world, whether or not it is accurate, becomes your reality 2. Holistic View a person’s personality is more than the sum of the individual parts; instead, the individual parts from a unique & total entity that functions as a unit 3. Self-Actualization our inherent tendency to develop and reach our true potentials


16 S ELF A CTUALIZATION The development & fulfillment of one’s unique human potential Self Actualized Individuals Perceive reality accurately Are independent & autonomous Prefer to have deep, loving relationships with only a few people Focus on accomplishing their goals Report peak experiences, which are moments of great joy & satisfaction

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