Presentation on theme: "Textile Industry: the First Example of Industrialization Objective: Scientific and technological changes promoted industrialization in the textile industry."— Presentation transcript:
Textile Industry: the First Example of Industrialization Objective: Scientific and technological changes promoted industrialization in the textile industry in England.
Textile Industry: the First Example of Industrialization England had long been the center of textile production. Traditionally, British textiles were produced through the putting-out system.
Textile Industry: the First Example of Industrialization Craftspeople in rural areas spun flax (linen) into fiber (thread) at home. The fiber was then transported by merchants to other craftspeople who wove the fiber into fabric. Because the labor was spread out in many workers’ homes, the putting-out system did not produce textiles quickly enough to keep pace with rising demand.
Inventions of New Machines The putting-out system came to an end with a number of inventions that changed the way textiles were manufactured. These changes led to the creation of the first textile factories.
Invention of New Machines In the 18 th century, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, which improved a weaving looms. Traditionally, two people had been needed to work a loom, but the flying shuttle made it possible for one person to do the job. With the flying shuttle, weavers were able to weave faster than human spinners could spin thread.
Invention of New Machines In about 1764, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which allowed as many as 16 threads to be spun at once. With it, spinners were able to catch up with the weavers. These new machines were placed in special buildings, or factories. Now spinners, weavers, and the machines were brought together in one place.
Invention of New Machines The Scotsman James Watt’s improvement of the coal- powered steam engine in 1782 contributed to the growth of the textile industry. So did Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785), which was run by steam power.
Effects of Steam Power Rushing streams and rivers turned the huge wheels that had provided power used by the early factories. With the steam-powered water loom, textile factories could be built anywhere, not just near sources of water.
Effects of Steam Power The steam engine also contributed to the growth of steam-powered railroads in the early 19 th century, which allowed merchants to transport goods cheaply long distances over land. England’s coal industry grew as the use of the steam engine grew. More workers were needed to mine coal and to run steam powered machines in factories and steam engines in ships and trains.