Babies Time of rapid growth First 6 months-breast or formula milk Breast feeding adv. = antibodies, sterile, properly balanced, convenient and free. Needs solids to supplement milk after 6 months so weaning begins after 4 months. Use fresh fruit and veg, starch and protein pureed Do not add sugar or salt.
Children Time of rapid growth Need protein vitamins minerals and energy foods Encourage healthy eating patterns – parental example Attractive small nutritious meals and healthy snacks Don’t add salt and sugar Meals based on regular family meals Sweets, crisps, bars, biscuits etc.. Not part of normal diet Bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruit, veg., meats, pulses, eggs, cheese, milk. Breakfast, packed lunch, nutritious snack, dinner.
Adolescent – Nutritional problems Teenage girls – calcium deficiency& iron deficiency (anaemia). Boys energy needs met by high cholesterol fast food Anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Badly balanced vegetarian diets.
Adult dietary needs Need to maintain and repair cells – protein. Amount of food depends on Gender and Activity Active adults need high energy nutritious foods e.g. cheese, pasta and vit. B to release the energy
Guidelines for adult diets Varied diet Maintains a suitable weight Low fat, low cholesterol foods. Veg. esp. greens for minerals and vits. Avoid salt and sugar Alcohol - 21 units male/week 14 units female /week
Dietary problems of the elderly Lack interest in food. Money problem. Physical disability- arthritis Illness can cause demand for protein, Vit.C, Vit.D Calcium. Less energy food needed Less active - more fibre Common deficiencies = vit. D&C B 1 and Iron.
Dietary guidelines for the elderly Smaller nutritious meals Avoid processed food Plenty of fluid and fibre Food rich in Vits D, C, B 1 Special kitchen gadgets make cooking easier Grocery delivery Meals on wheels, home help, day centres
Dietary issues of people who are ill or convalescing Poor Digestion Poor appetite Nutrients required depends on type and severity of illness. Protein – repair tissue Cellulose – inactive Vit. C – healing, prevent bed sores. Calcium & Vit. D – bone repair Iron & Vit. C – replace blood loss. Water – prevent dehydration from fever, vomiting or diarrhoea
Guidelines for convalescent diet. Small attractive portions Good nutrient balance Easy to eat and digest – avoid fats & oils Fresh food prepared hygienically Reduce energy rich food – inactive Avoid Strong flavours e.g. curry Suitable foods, broths, white fish, chicken, poached egg, a little boiled potato rice or pasta, fresh steamed veg., egg custards, milk puddings, stewed or poached fruit.
Diet during pregnancy Before getting pregnant – healthy diet + folic acid to prevent neural tube defects Extra 300 kCals /day. Provide for growth with extra protein, vit A, calcium, vit D. Avoid nicotine, caffeine, alcohol
Dietary needs for pregnancy Iron and vit. C to prevent anaemia Deficiency of vit. K can cause a fatal disease in newborns. Thiamine to release energy from food Fatty acids for nervous system – oily fish, liver, egg yolk soya beans
Dietary difficulties during pregnancy Cravings and “going off” foods Nausea esp. first14 weeks dry toast, avoid fatty foods. Heartburn – due to pressure on stomach – avoid fatty and spicy foods. Eat small meals, try yoghurt or milk. Constipation – increase water and fibre Avoid raw eggs, coleslaw and soft cheeses – listeria and salmonella