Presentation on theme: "Objectives and Indicators for MCH Programs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Objectives and Indicators for MCH Programs MCH in Developing Countries1
2 Objectives and Indicators Session goalsPromote an understanding of the importance of good objectives and indicators, and their contribution to effective program managementProvide or refine skills needed to develop MCH program objectives
3 Objectives and Indicators Session objectives -- by the end of the session, participants should be able to:Explain the terms “goal,’ “objective,” “indicator” and “target”Describe the characteristics of objectives and indicators that are useful for program managementWrite a “smart” objective for the country project and state its corresponding indicator
4 Why discuss MCH program objectives? How will you know if you are successful if you don’t identify what you want to do?There are always limited resourcesClear objectives are often a donor requirementDeveloping appropriate and useful objectives is not always simple or intuitiveNote -- they are NOT a substitute for “doing the right thing” based on a needs assessment
5 Logic model flow chart - how program efforts contribute to program goals ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpactTerms will vary!
6 Assignments, tasks, stuff we do to achieve our objectives ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpactActivities are any action, funded or unfunded, undertaken to achieve a program resultAssignments, tasks, stuff we do to achieve our objectives
7 ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpactObjectives can include anything clearly intended to be achieved through the program or projectOutput level objectives are those resulting from first order activitiesImpact level objectives refer to the desired long-term or ultimate resultOutcomes -- Intermediate objectives that fall somewhere between these two
8 Outputs vs. OutcomesExample: Number of pregnant women delivering in a health facility is an output. Percentage of those delivering in a health facility who deliver a newborn without complications is an outcome.Not how many worms the bird feeds its young, but how well the fledgling flies(United Way of America)Source: University of Wisconsin Extension, Program and Evaluation8
9 Frequently “bean counting” ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesResultsOutput level objectives are those that result from activities -- things your program doesIn most instances don’t represent population changeImportant area for program/project monitoringFrequently “bean counting”Useful for program management purposesAnd -- donors may hold you accountable for the beans
10 Processes Objectives Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact Impact and outcomes are…Changes in the condition or behavior of a program participant or changes in conditions that affect a participant: resultsWhether an objective is a impact or outcome depends on its level in the causality chainImpact describes the long-term resultsOutcomes describe the immediate effects on participantsThe ability of a program to produce results (i.e., outcomes, impact, or both) depends on your resources, program duration, and many, many social, economic and cultural conditions that affect participants in the program
12 Processes Objectives Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact Objectives should be the highest order objectives for which you can be held accountableThey should be S M A R T :S - simpleM - measurable (in the program setting)A - appropriate (technically correct, important)R - realisticT - time-limited
13 ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpactLet’s consider this objective...The project will improve the understanding of mothers about the importance of oral rehydration therapy and how to correctly mix ORS.
15 The project will increase immunization coverage to 80% ProcessesObjectivesInputsActivitiesOutputsOutcomesImpactLet’s consider another objective...The project will increase immunization coverage to 80%
17 Measures By…, v% coverage By …, coverage will increase from w% to x% By…, coverage will increase by y%By…, coverage will increase by z percentage points17
18 Additional terms: Indicators… Target… InputsActivitiesProcessesOutputsObjectivesOutcomesImpactIndicators…Answer the question, “How will we measure what we have achieved?”Target…the specific level of achievement
19 What is the indicator and target for the immunization objective?
21 Who to involve in setting objectives and indicators? SelectingIndicatorsWho to involve in setting objectives and indicators?Project staffOthers familiar with relevant dataThe community, partnersPublished literature, project reportsWhen?Iterative - As work on program development proceedsCheck feasibility before finalizingIt’s usually OK to revise objectives if rationale is provided
22 Practicality Are the data associated with the indicator practical? How will you collect the data?Are quality data currently available?Can routine data can be procured on a regular and timely and economical basis?Will you need to conduct a survey or special studies?
23 All of these contribute to the program goals -- broad, long-term intended results InputsActivitiesProcessesOutputsObjectivesOutcomesImpactIndicators