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The Stack and Queue Types Lecture 10 Hartmut Kaiser hkaiser@cct.lsu.edu http://www.cct.lsu.edu/˜hkaiser/fall_2012/csc1254.html

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Programming Principle of the Day Do the simplest thing that could possibly work ▫A good question to ask one’s self when programming is “What is the simplest thing that could possibly work?” ▫This helps keep us on the path towards simplicity in the design. http://c2.com/xp/DoTheSimplestThingThatCouldPossiblyWork.html 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 2

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Abstract This lecture will focus on two other sequential data types, the stack and the queue. We will use stacks to implement conversion between ‘normal expressions’ and the equivalent reverse polish notation. 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 3

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Introduction to Stacks A stack is a last-in-first-out (LIFO) data structure Limited access vector (or list) Main operations: ▫Adding an item Referred to as pushing it onto the stack ▫Removing an item Referred to as popping it from the stack CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 4 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 5 Introduction to Stacks Definition: ▫An ordered collection of data items ▫Can be accessed at only one end (the top) Operations: ▫Construct a stack (usually empty) ▫Check if it is empty ▫push: add an element to the top ▫top: retrieve the top element ▫pop: remove the top element ▫size: returns number of elements in stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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Introduction to Stacks Useful for ▫Reversing a sequence ▫Managing a series of undo-actions ▫Tracking history when browsing the web ▫Function call hierarchy is implemented with a stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 6

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7 Push 17 5 11 3 Push means place a new data element at the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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8 Push (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Push means place a new data element at the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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9 Push (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Push means place a new data element at the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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10 Push (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Push means place a new data element at the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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11 Pop 17 5 11 3 Pop means take a data element off the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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12 Pop (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Pop means take a data element off the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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13 Pop (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Pop means take a data element off the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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14 Pop (cont.) 17 5 11 3 Pop means take a data element off the top of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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15 Top 17 5 11 3 Top means retrieve the top of the stack without removing it 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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16 Top (cont.) 17 5 11 3 3 Top means retrieve the top of the stack without removing it 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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17 Top (cont.) 17 5 11 3 3 Top means retrieve the top of the stack without removing it 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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18 Linked-List Stack Stacks can also be implemented with a linked list The front node is the top of the stack In fact, there is std::stack<> which is an adaptor usable with different types of underlying containers (std::list is one possibility) std::stack : implements a stack of ‘T’s T top(); void push(T const&); void pop(); std::stack ::size_type size() const; bool empty(); 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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Linked-List Stack (cont.) To pop, we remove the node at the front of the linked list, and return the element to the client… 19 top 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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Linked-List Stack (cont.) To pop, we remove the node at the front of the linked list, and return the element to the client… 20 top 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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Linked-List Stack (cont.) To push, we place the new element in a node and insert it at the front of the linked list… 21 top 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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Linked-List Stack (cont.) To push, we place a new element in a node and insert it at the front of the linked list… 22 top 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues

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Example: Implementing a Stack Implementing a stack on top of a list is trivial ▫Live coding 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 23

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Application of Stacks Consider the arithmetic statement in the assignment: x = a * b + c Compiler must generate machine instructions: LOAD a MULT b ADD c STORE x CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 24 Note: this is "infix" notation The operators are between the operands 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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Reverse Polish Notation Postfix Notation ▫Most compilers convert an expression in infix notation to postfix The operators are written after the operands ▫So a * b + c becomes a b * c + ▫Advantage: Expressions can be written without parentheses 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 25

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Postfix and Prefix Examples InfixRPN (Postfix)Prefix A + BA B ++ A B A * B + CA B * C ++ * A B C A * (B + C)A B C + ** A + B C A – (B – (C – D))A B C D – – –– A – B – C – D A – B – C – DA B – C – D –– – – A B C D 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 26 Prefix: Operators come before the operands

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Evaluating RPN Expressions "By hand" (Underlining technique): 1.Scan the expression from left to right to find an operator. 2.Locate ("underline") the last two preceding operands and combine them using this operator. 3.Repeat until the end of the expression is reached. Example: 2 3 4 + 5 6 - - * 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 27

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Evaluating RPN Expressions 2 3 4 + 5 6 - - * 2 3 4 + 5 6 - - * 2 7 5 6 - - * 2 7 -1 - * 2 8 * 16 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 28 2 * ((3 + 4) – (5 – 6))

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Evaluating RPN Expressions By using a stack algorithm ▫Initialize an empty stack Repeat the following until the end of the expression is encountered ▫Get the next token (const, var, operator) in the expression ▫Operand – push onto stack Operator – do the following Pop 2 values from stack Apply operator to the two values Push resulting value back onto stack When end of expression encountered, value of expression is the (only) number left in stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 29 Note: if only 1 value on stack, this is an invalid RPN expression

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CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 30 Evaluating of Postfix Note the changing status of the stack 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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Converting between Notations By hand: Represent infix expression as an expression tree: 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 31 A * B + C + C * A B A * (B + C) * A + B C ((A + B) * C) / (D - E) C A B D E * + / -

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Converting RPN (Postfix) Traverse the tree in Left-Right-Parent order (post-order) to get RPN: 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 32 C AB D E * + / - A B + C * D E - /

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Converting to Prefix Traverse tree in Parent-Left-Right order (pre- order) to get prefix: 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 33 / * + A B C - D E C AB D E * + / -

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Converting to Infix Traverse tree in Left-Parent-Right order (in- order) to get infix (must insert parenthesis) 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 34 ((A + B)* C)/(D – E)) C AB D E * + / -

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Another RPN Conversion Method By hand: "Fully parenthesize-move-erase" method: 1.Fully parenthesize the expression. 2.Replace each right parenthesis by the corresponding operator. 3.Erase all left parentheses. 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 35 A * B + C ((A B * C + A B * C + A * (B + C) (A (B C + * A B C + * ((A * B) + C) (A * (B + C ) )

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Stack Algorithm Initialize an empty stack of operators While no error and not end of expression ▫Get next input "token" from infix expression ▫If token is … "(": push onto stack ")": pop and display stack elements until "(" occurs, do not display it 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 36 constants, variables, operators, left or right parenthesis

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Stack Algorithm operator if operator has higher priority than top of stack push token onto stack else pop and display top of stack repeat comparison of token with top of stack operand display it When end of infix reached, pop and display stack items until empty 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 37 Note: Left parenthesis in stack has lower priority than operators

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Introduction to Queue A queue is a first-in-first-out (FIFO) data structure Limited access vector (or list) Main operations: ▫Adding an item Referred to as pushing it onto the queue (enqueue an item, adding to the end) ▫Removing an item Referred to as popping it from the queue (dequeue an item, remove from the front) CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 38 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 39 Introduction to Queues Definition: ▫An ordered collection of data items ▫Can be read at only one end (the front) and written to only at the other end (the back) Operations: ▫Construct a queue (usually empty) ▫Check if it is empty ▫push: add an element to the back ▫front: retrieve the front element ▫pop: remove the front element ▫size: returns number of elements in queue 10/2/2012, Lecture 10

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Introduction to Queues Useful for ▫All kind of simulations (traffic, supermarket, etc.) ▫Computers use queues for scheduling Handling keyboard events Handling mouse events Scrolling the screen Printer spooler ▫C++ I/O streams are queues Even if we only access one end, the other end is managed by the operating system 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 40

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Example: Queue of Strings void manage_queue() { queue waiting_strings; // queue of 'waiting' strings while (true) { cout "; // ask for next line of text string response; getline(cin, response); if (response.empty()) break; if (response == "next") { // try to dequeue if (waiting_strings.empty()) cout << "No one waiting!" << endl; else { cout << waiting_strings.front() << endl; waiting_strings.pop(); } else { // enqueue the line read waiting_strings.push(response); } 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 41

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Example: Implementing a Queue Implementing a queue on top of a list is equally trivial ▫Live coding 10/2/2012, Lecture 10 CSC 1254, Fall 2012, Stacks and Queues 42

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