Presentation on theme: "World War I [Conclusion and Aftermath] The War comes to a Close - Factors contributing to the end of the war - Russia withdraws from the War -Communist."— Presentation transcript:
World War I [Conclusion and Aftermath] The War comes to a Close - Factors contributing to the end of the war - Russia withdraws from the War -Communist overthrow of the Russian czar led to the treaty of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany - US Entry into the war -Caused by German U-Boat warfare, Zimmerman letter - Collapsing German Economy -Riots and uprisings in Germany lead to the fall of the Kaiser. The Costs of War - Human Life -8.5 Million dead, double that number were wounded -1918 – flu pandemic – killing 20 million people worldwide - Financial Costs - Allies insisted the Central Power should pay reperations -These are payments for damages done during the war - Political Turmoil - The governments of Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had all collapsed.
Creating the Peace…and the seeds of future war The Paris Peace Conference The Paris Peace Conference –1918 – The War Ends, but death continues A flue pandemic kills more than 20 million worldwide. –Paris Peace Conference Central Powers – See the end of the war as a ceasefire. They do not feel there is a true “winner” of the war. Allies – See the end of the war as victory and use the peace process as a chance to place blame on the Central Powers. –The Big Three Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Great Britain) and Georges Clemenceau (France) Wilson wanted all nations to have self determination and democratic governments. Stressed his “Fourteen Points” which he felt should guide the process. Wilson didn’t think it was wise to “blame” Germany for the war. He also pushed for the League of Nations (Like an early United Nations) for collective security George Clemenceau wanted a weakened Germany that could never again threaten France. David Lloyd George wanted to rebuild a Britain that would be a home “for heroes”. –Other national leaders, like that of Italy, demanded their own rewards for aiding the Allies. –Many other people wanted independent nations created that they could rule over (like the Arabs and the Jews).
The Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles –Germany had to take full responsibility for the war –War reparations owed by Germany totaled $30 billion What cost $30,000,000,000 in 1918 would cost $425,491,369,846.57 in 2008. –German military is capped in size –The regions of Alsace and Lorraine are returned to France (this will matter later for WWII) –All overseas German colonies are given to Allied Powers Germany signs because it has no choice. Germany signs because it has no choice. –But it will resent this treatment, seeing itself as a victim of the ‘peace’ process. In general, most nations were very unhappy with the Treaty. In general, most nations were very unhappy with the Treaty. –Italy did not receive all the lands it was promised by the Allies. –Japan resented Allied Powers refusal to recognize its claims in China (Sino-Japanese War) –Russia resented having independent nations created (Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) on its old lands. –Colonies who had helped the Allies against Germany received no help/recognition of independence. (India, the Arab tribes in the Middle East. –European nations simple took Central Power colonies for themselves. The League of Nations is formed, but America’s own Senate refuses to join, seeing it as another way that America could become locked into MORE European conflicts. The League of Nations is formed, but America’s own Senate refuses to join, seeing it as another way that America could become locked into MORE European conflicts.