Lecture Outline 1. What is the Manitoba Schools Question? 2. Manitoba before and at Confederation 3. Thomas Greenway & Provincial Rights 4. Legal challenges 5. Laurier-Greenway Compromise/ 1897 Manitoba Schools Act 6. Impact of the legislation
Manitoba Schools Question Transformation of Manitoba’s school system Not just about education What else was it about?
1867 British North America Act (Confederation) Section 92 Education a provincial responsibility Section 93 If any province did not protect denominational schools, the federal government has an obligation to step in to enact protective legislation
Manitoba – Historical Background Red River Settlement,1812 Agriculture, fur trade Education in Red River missionaries: Catholic & Anglican 1870: around 30 schools in Red River Settlement Red River Resistance, 1869
Post 1870s Demographic Change Migration: Ontario to Manitoba Pro-British Anti-Catholic Icelandic & Mennonite settlers Was Manitoba still bicultural?
Impact of Demographic Changes Attempts to pass anti-Francophone legislation Open criticism of dual system in press 3 main critiques
Demographic Impact on the School System YearProtestant Schools Protestant Students Catholic Schools Catholic Students 18711681617639 1879993,614271,658 189062918,850904,364
Thomas Greenway & Provincial Rights Premier of Manitoba, 1888
Key Pieces of Legislation 1. Official Languages Act (1890) 2. An Act Respecting the Department of Education 3. An Act Respecting Public Schools
In the courts Court of Queen’s Bench Supreme Court of Canada Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC )
1896 Federal Election Education: main election issue Wilfrid Laurier, Liberal Party Charles Tupper, Conservative leader Wilfrid Laurier
Laurier-Greenway Compromise Manitoba School Act, 1897 urban schools with 40 or more RC students, a RC teacher could be hired (10 in rural areas) 3:30 to 4:00 – religious instruction if requested by 10 or more families Teachers could not provide the religious instruction
“Bilingual System” Not officially part of L-G Compromise Added to the Manitoba School Act If 10 or more students spoke a language other than English, instruction could be provided in that language & in English
Reading for Wednesday – Marilyn Barber article on e-reserve Discussion Questions 1. Why were schools seen as the best places for the assimilation of immigrants? What does Barber mean by ‘assimilation through education’? 2. Were all immigrants viewed as equal? Why or why not? 3. How did the three prairie provinces approach the ‘problem’ of immigrants and education? 4. What critiques/concerns do you have about this article?