Presentation on theme: "AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN DEVELOPING NATIONS. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE U. S: A REVIEW ITS IMPORTANCE: * U.S. farmers produce enough food to feed."— Presentation transcript:
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN THE U. S: A REVIEW ITS IMPORTANCE: * U.S. farmers produce enough food to feed 134 people & themselves. * U.S. farmers are world leaders in soybean, corn, wheat, rice, cotton, & red meat production.
U.S. Agricultural Education System Morrill Land-Grant Act, 1862 - 139 years ago. Hatch Act, 1887 - 116 years ago. Smith-Lever Act, 1914 - 89 years ago. Smith-Hughes Act, 1917 - 86 years ago.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION IN THE U.S. AGRICULTURE FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES 4-H & YOUTH DEVELOPMENT RURAL DEVELOPMENT
ADMINISTRATION OF COOP EXTENSION IN THE U.S. Federal level - USDA State level - Land-Grant Colleges Local level - County Commissioners
ADMINISTRATION INTERNATIONALLY Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Education Private Firms Websites * http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/chiefs/chiefs -toc-view.html
INTERNATIONAL EXTENSION EMPHASIS FOOD PRODUCTION PRESERVATION & STORAGE PROCESSING DISTRIBUTION
AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION A direct linkage to an effective agricultural education system - The U.S. Model. * Land-Grant Universities * State Ag Experiment Stations * Cooperative Extension
MISSION OF EXTENSION EDUCATION * Extension transfers (disseminates) research-based information to clientele/cooperators/public.
EXTENSION LINKAGES RESEARCH › EXTENSION › FARMERS * Depicts the flow of technology/information to farmers from research stations through Extension.
HAVELOCK’S MODEL Research, Development, & Diffusion * Basic Research * Applied Research * Development * Diffusion
Linkages Supporting the Family Farm Education Extension Farm Credit Marketing Agricultural Inputs Processing Research Ag Policy
Problems in International Extension Qualified staff Reliable funding Transportation & travel funds Communications Understanding of Extension concepts Frequent transfer of Extension personnel Unfavorable farmer/Extension staff ratio
PROGRAM and POLICY PROBLEMS Ill defined Extension objectives No annual Extension plan Program & personnel evaluation Policy/Guidelines Suitable information for in-service Research-based information Extension development plan
Program & Policy Problems (continued) Little communication between Research and Extension Trained Extension Supervisors Supporting Services
PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE PROBLEMS Credit Market Access Poor Distribution of Agricultural Inputs
ROLE OF EXTENSION FIELD STAFF Change agents. Source of information & practice. The farmers’ link to the outside world. Train farmers as adopters, leaders, & cooperators.
ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION National policy embodied in legislation establishing the educational role of Extension. A philosophy of Extension education embodying the concept of human resource development.
ELEMENTS OF AG EXTENSION (continued) Sources of technical information required to solve problems for rural people. A source of trained field staff. Adequate support services. Political climate conducive to agriculture and rural development. Incentives for production and land tenure.
ORGANIZATION OF EXTENSION IN DEVELOPING NATIONS Education arm of the Ministry of Agriculture ? Extension administrator part of the policy making staff in the Ministry of Agriculture ?
ORGANIZATION & STRUCTURE OF EXTENSION (continued) Extension’s role - provide opportunities to develop effective working relationships with research and other supporting agricultural agencies/organizations?
LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS Only 15 of 52 low and middle income developing countries surveyed in a recent study indicated having laws which provided Extension with an operating budget.
Recommendations for Establishing Extension Educational programs for the whole family. Separate education from regulatory functions. Freedom from political involvement. Provide a direct linkage to Agricultural Experiment Stations. Financial support provided by law.
Recommendations (continued) Organize Extension by region to serve the best interest of farmers. Include the input of advisory and planning groups in program development. Provide incentives and encouragement for local participation.
EXTENSION NEEDS Trained & dedicated personnel. Supplies, equipment, facilities, & transportation. Research-based information easily adaptable to agriculture & rural development. Financial resources. Administrative & political support.
SELECTING EFFECTIVE TEACHING METHODS Number of clientele you are attempting to serve. Size of local support staff available. Availability of communications - mail, telephone, fax, radio, news paper, television, internet, etc. Level of formal education
Teaching Methods Adapted to Extension Education Demonstration: 1) Method demonstration 2) Result demonstration 3) Type demonstration
Method Demonstration * Explain the need for the practice. * Show operation/procedure step by step. * Emphasize key points. * Invite the group to participate. * Invite questions & discussion.
WHY PUBLICATIONS ? Confidence in the written word. Accurate detailed information. Substitutes for personal letters. Creates interest/desire for additional information. Subject matter from a bulletin may be used in a news article. Printed materials filed for future reference.