Presentation on theme: "Acids and Bases Let’s start with a review of some things you may already know about Acids and Bases!"— Presentation transcript:
Acids and Bases Let’s start with a review of some things you may already know about Acids and Bases!
All about Acids Acids are types of organic molecules. We’ll look at their structures them later in the year. Characteristics of Acids Tastes Sour Conduct Electricity Some acids react strongly with metals Turns blue litmus paper red Corrosive, which means they break down certain substances.
Examples of Acids Acetic Acid = Vinegar Citric Acid = lemons, limes, & oranges. It is in many sour candies. Ascorbic acid = Vitamin C which your body needs to function. Sulfuric acid is used in the production of fertilizers, steel, paints, and plastics, car batteries
Back to Basics! Properties of Bases: Bases have a bitter taste. Conduct Electricity Turns Red litmus paper Blue Bases are usually slippery and gives soap, ammonia, other cleaning products some of their properties. Your blood is a basic solution.
Examples of Bases Magnesium Hydroxide = Milk of Magnesia – Help for upset stomach Drain Cleaner = Unclogs pipes Sodium Bicarbonate – Baking Soda = Useful for cooking and cleaning
Acid Definitions Over time the definition of what is an acid or a base has changed with our understanding of molecules and how they interact. There are three definitions that we know: We will look at each of these in closer detail! -Arrhenius (1880’s) -Bronsted-Lowry (1920’s) -Lewis (1923)
Arrhenius – Traditional Definition ▫Acid:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H + ). ▫Base:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.
Problems with the Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius Model ▫Is only applicable in solutions. ▫Limited to molecules with Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions. ▫A more realistic representation of hydrochloric acid in water…..
Bronsted-Lowry Definition Bronsted-Lowry 2 different individuals both proposed the same idea. Based on the idea that PROTONS (H + ) are donated and accepted. ▫Acids – a substance that donates a proton. ▫Bases – a substance that accepts a proton.
Bronsted-Lowry Examples Demo of the reaction: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U0M-Q65VQHs + + HCl+NH 3 Cl - + NH 4 + What is the acid and what is the base? -Acid is HCl because it donates the proton -Base is NH3 because it accepts the proton
An acid and base always work together to transfer a proton. One compound must donate and therefore, another must receive the proton. Which is the acid and which is the base in each of these reactions? Bronsted-Lowry Examples
Water as an Acid and Base So some molecules can act as an acid or base like water in the above examples. When a compound can act as an acid or a base so it is said to be Amphoteric.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs An acid and base always work in this type of reaction. These reactions are also reversible. In many acid base reactions, the reactants and products change back and forth continuously. They do this in an effort to reach equilibrium! Identify the acid and base for the reaction:
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs If the reaction were flipped, then then the roles would reverse! Base Acid Base
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs A conjugate base is what remains after an acid has donated a proton. A conjugate acid is what is formed when a base accepts a proton. BaseAcid Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid
Conjugate Acid/Base Practice: 1) Identify the Acid, Base, and their Conjugates: NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) 2)What is the Conj. Base of: 3)What is the Conj. Acid of: A) HClO 4 D) CN - B) PH 4 + E) SO 4 2- C) HCO 3 - F) HCO 3 - ClO 4 - PH 3 CO 3 2- HCN HSO 4 - H 2 CO 3
Lewis Acids and Bases G.N. Lewis noted that when a proton reacted with a base, a pair of electrons were “donated” so the base could bond to the accepted proton. Hence, the base lost a pair of electrons. Lewis Acid: Substances that accept a pair of electrons Lewis Base: Substances that donate a pair of electrons