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Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) FHI 360 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20009 Tel: 202-884-8000 Fax: 202-884-8432.

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Presentation on theme: "Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) FHI 360 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20009 Tel: 202-884-8000 Fax: 202-884-8432."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA) FHI 360 1825 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20009 Tel: 202-884-8000 Fax: 202-884-8432 Email: Website: III DESIGNING FOR GENDER INTEGRATION: OVERVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS TO FFP TOPS FSN Knowledge Sharing Meeting November 15 2012

2 III Outline of Presentation Overview: –Policy environment for gender –Why gender integration is relevant for food security –Recommendations provided to FFP to integrate gender Conclusions: Key considerations in designing for gender integration 2

3 III Policy Environment for Gender Importance of gender equality has long been recognized by USAID. USAID Gender Policy launched in March 2012 FFP FY 2010 onwards Title II Proposal Guidelines – enhanced focus on gender, FY 2012/13 RFA: –Gender must be integrated into each program Cross-cutting or it’s own SO –Program design must consider How will gender relations affect achievement of sustainable results? How will results affect relative status of women and men? –Gender indicators included –Must have staff with gender expertise

4 III Revised Title II proposal guidelines to integrate gender May-Sep 2009 Oct/Nov 2009 ADS is revised and finalized making gender integration mandatory USAID-wide Gender integration in Title II becomes mandatory Feb 2010 Report on Gender Integration in FFP published as an FFP occasional paper and first steps to gender integration start March 2011 March 2012 USAID Gender Equality and Female Empowerment Policy launched FFP USAID-wide 4 Milestones

5 III Why Does Gender Integration Matter For Food Security? Gender inequality is a root cause of food insecurity Relative to men and boys, women and girls have: social status access to and control over resources negotiating and decision-making power but the most responsibility for household food security and caring for children and family control over their time and mobility 5

6 III Because: There is a difference in men and women’s productive, reproductive and community roles– by age and life-stage Men and women don’t have the same access to or control over land, resources, and capital Most often women have much less access to and control over: land, resources, capital, farming inputs, sale of assets, trading, etc. relative to men 6 Why Does Gender Integration Matter For Food Availability?

7 III Because: There is a difference between men and women’s access to and control over resources, income, power, and decision- making at the household and community level – by age and life-stage Wages women and men earn can be very different, with women earning much less, having fewer skills, and working with less frequency Women often have less purchasing power, decision-making power, control over their own income or household income relative to men 7 Why Does Gender Integration Matter For Food Access?

8 III Because: There is a difference in men and women’s care-giving roles, reproductive roles, decision-making and control over resources– by age and life-stage While women are primary caregivers – their low status and position within the family leaves them with little decision- making power regarding child care and feeding Involving men is important because they have much greater decision-making power than women, and their support in this regard is critical for young child nutrition 8 Why Does Gender Integration Matter For Food Utilization?

9 III Differences between and within sexes Differences between the sexes, relative to men – women have: less access to resources, capital, land, productive assets less decision-making power and mobility require permission to obtain services or participate in activities earn much less than men, have fewer employment opportunities, fewer skills, and fewer days of work Differences within the sexes Older women gain power, respect and decision-making authority with age relative to young women Older men have the greatest access to resources relative to young men Older women have more negotiating power to participate in livelihood and income-generation activities Older women have more capabilities and resources to manage food security 9

10 III Women’s decision making by age Predominant MCHN Beneficiaries Predominant Livelihoods Beneficiaries 10

11 III Time Poverty 11 For mothers of young children: Time spent on IGA/ training / agricultural production = Less time for BF & CF = worse child nutrition

12 III Food Security & Livelihoods Early warning and response Maternal and child health and nutrition Livelihood diversification (range of activities eg., farming, livestock, trading, microcredit, poultry etc) Engaging family gatekeepers Shared responsibility for mothers & children’s well-being Male involvement Early marriage & Marriage practices Adolescent mother Shocks/hazards/risk s/ different for men & women Different vulnerabilities depending on age, gender, and life-stage Shifts in gender relations after major shocks/disasters Women’s & men’s access to land and land tenure Women & men’s access to & control over resources & inputs Women’s & men’s employment, incomes, control over income & contribution to hhld FS Social transitions – migration & marriage rights Women’s status & Violence against women Gender issues in Title II Programming 12

13 III 13 Overview of Recommendations to FFP DCHA/FFP Leadership, policy, guidelines on gender mainstreaming in operations Ensure skills, knowledge, capacity within FFP Opportunities and resources for innovative programming by IPs Implementing partners Commit to gender equality and policies Assess and strengthen capacity, M&E, and reporting Innovate approaches in gender equity strategies for food security Knowledge management and sharing

14 III 14 Immediate Strong, consistent, sustained leadershipExplicit gender requirements Gender mainstreaming action plan Harmonize Title II guidelines with ADS Gender as a threshold issue in awards Senior managers: leadership, responsibility, accountability to ensure gender mainstreaming Checklist of minimum requirements to TECs Guidelines on evaluating institutional gender capacity of potential awardees Dedicated webpage with resources on gender Comprehensive framework/guidelines for gender and food security M&E Integrate gender into existing reporting Ensure sex-disaggregated data Undertake and require gender analysis in all levels of operation Continue development of gender integrated FSCFs Revise Title II guidelines to require inclusion of a gender strategy and completion of gender assessment within 1 year of award Capacity development and TA Develop and begin implementation of comprehensive plan to strengthen staff capacity Gender mainstreaming in all Title II training for DCHA/FFP staff Develop Senior management capacity development program

15 III 15 Intermediate Strong, consistent, sustained leadershipExplicit gender requirements Collaborate on gender integration and indicators in USAID and USG food security programs Increased cooperation with other donors and agencies on gendered food security policies, practices, common objectives, and indicators Develop common gender indicators for technical sectors Collaborate with WFP and awardees in emergency programs on common gender indicators Require Title II Awardees to monitor and report on reducing gender disparities Require awardees to report on and track positive or negative changes to gender relations as they affect project implementation and results Capacity development and TAInnovative programming Earmark resources for capacity development on gender integration in food security and its technical sectors Develop series of technical resources and guidance on gender integration Provide specialized funding to promote innovation in programming/operations research on gender and food security Pilot programs within food security technical sectors that empower women/ constructively engage men

16 III 16 What does it mean to integrate gender and promote gender equality? Gender equality consists of many dimensions or domains No one project can address all the dimensions or domains of gender equality For many projects promoting gender equity is a more tangible means to promoting gender equality For program design clarifying what you can influence and change in terms of gender is important to define at the start The gender objective is an integral part of how the project will achieve its goals and strategic objectives – it is a way of working.

17 III Gender domains in FY2012 Title II RFA Domains of gender equality that projects can affect could include, but are not limited to: For agriculture and livelihoods activities: Access to an control over resources and assets Economic empowerment For MCHN activities: Gender relations and dynamics Male involvement in maternal and child nutrition Shared responsibility between men and women for young child nutrition Decision-making related to health Mobility related to health-seeking behaviors For early warning and disaster risk reduction activities: Community planning for risk reduction and disaster mitigation that identifies men and women’s risks/vulnerabilities, roles, responsibilities, and permissions by age and life-stage Gender relations and dynamics that are affected by shocks and disasters 17

18 III What are key considerations in designing for gender integration? Gender should be integrated from design to evaluation, throughout the project implementation cycle A sound understanding of the local context in terms of gender inequality, disparities and constraints for women and men across life-stages The gender objective (either a strategic objective or cross-cutting) should be based on: –How addressing and integrating gender will contribute to accomplishing the projects goals and objectives –how the project would want to have contributed to promoting gender equality by the end of the project The RF’s and IPTT’s should integrate gender Carefully consider how to implement the project to integrate and address gender for improved project outcomes Measure, monitor, and evaluate gender in a way that is meaningful 18

19 III This presentation is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the support of the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases and Nutrition, Bureau for Global Health, United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (also include any additional USAID Bureaus, Offices, and Missions that provided funding as needed), under terms of Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-12-00005, through FANTA, managed by FHI 360. The contents are the responsibility of FHI 360 and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government. 19

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