Presentation on theme: "ABS Ennin, George Coleman, David Dadson & Anthony Ansah"— Presentation transcript:
1 ABS Ennin, George Coleman, David Dadson & Anthony Ansah Substation OverviewPresentationbyABS Ennin, George Coleman, David Dadson & Anthony Ansah
2 Substation Overview Introduction Modern day users of electricity demand a constant and unvarying voltage and frequency to operate new sophisticated equipment. Customers also expect electric power 24 hours a day, seven days a week.Many unpredictable incidents can interrupt the continuous operation of a power system. Overhead lines may be struck by lightning; untrimmed trees can fall or blow into a line; strong winds can cause lines to fall or make contact with each other; ice can accumulate resulting in overstressed conductors; cars can hit utility poles during an accident; electrical equipment can fail due to poor maintenance; contractors can dig into an underground cable; operating personnel can make switching errors. Yet, customers still expect electric power, on demand. Substations play a significant role in meeting these requirements.
3 Substation Overview OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this module the participant should be able to:Describe the purpose of a substation.List the types of substations.State the advantages of various switching configurations.List the basic components of a substation.List methods of voltage control in a substation.Describe the function of metering in a substation. Describe the function of relaying in a substation Describe the function of equipment in the control room. List and describe the function of equipment at the switchyard.
4 Substation OverviewPurpose of a Substation Substations play an important role in a power system. Basically, a substation has three main functions; switching, transform the voltage, and control the voltage. An electrical power system is designed so that service will continue despite any damage or impairment to other components of the system by natural disaster or other phenomena. When a single element of the system is out of operation for a period of time, be it a few seconds or several days, the power system shall be capable of meeting the usual needs of the customer. Substations represent an important role in providing this reliability.
5 Substation Overview Purpose of a Substation One important function of substations is switching. Whether it is switching normal load currents or fault currents, switching protects the power system and equipment in the event of trouble. Normally, the switching is done automatically with relaying and circuit breakers or switches. However, non-automatic switching of circuits can be done if it becomes necessary to improve reliability or security of the system.
6 Substation Overview Purpose of a Substation Secondly, substations function to transform the voltage. For economic reasons, different voltages are used in various parts of the system, ranging from 11.5kV or lower in distribution systems, up to 330kV in bulk transmission systems. High voltages are desirable when the amount of power is great or the distance of transmission is very long. Lower voltages are advantageous where the amount of power is small or transmission distances are short. When a substation uses transformers, it represents a division between sections of the power system with different voltages.
7 Substation Overview Purpose of a Substation Substations also function to control the system voltage. Various types of equipment are used to accomplish this. Voltage regulators and load-tap changers (LTCs) modify the voltage directly; whereas synchronous condensers, capacitor banks, static voltage compensator (svc) and shunt reactors control system voltage by modifying the reactive power flow.
8 Substation Overview Substation Design Stage Construction Stage A substation can be describe into two areas as:SwitchyardControlroom
9 Substation Overview Switchyard A Switchyard comprises of: A Line GantryIncoming LineOutgoing LineBus ConfigurationTransformer BankFeeder StructureEarthingVoltage Control
10 Substation Overview Switchyard Equipment Lines Incoming Line Gantry Outgoing Line GantryShield Wire NetworkLine Insulators/Arcing HornsWave TrapsLine CVTsLine Lightning Arrestors/Shaded RingsSkywire or ShieldwireLine Disconnecting SwitchesBy-pass SwitchesLine Breakers – Dead and Live TanksLine Ground Switch
11 Substation OverviewSwitchyard Equipment Line Gantry
12 Substation OverviewSwitchyard Equipment Line Gantry
13 Substation OverviewSwitchyard Equipment - Line Insulator/Wave Trap/Arcing Horns
16 Substation Overview Switchyard Equipment Lightning Arrestor with Shaded Ring
17 Substation OverviewSwitchyard Equipment - Surge arresters act to discharge any power surge (transient currents) high enough to cause serious damage. During normal operating conditions, surge arresters appear in the system as open circuits. When a disturbance occurs, such as from a lightning strike or switching surge, surge arresters discharge transient voltages that can cause serious equipment damage to ground.Lightning Arrestor with Shaded Ring
41 Substation Overview Switchyard Substation Earthing System Earthing AlternativesThere are three basic alternatives, isolated systems with no intentional connection to earth,impedance earthed systems with connection through a reactor or resistor and directly earthedsystems where transformer neutrals are connected directly to earth.
42 Substation Overview Substation Earthing Earthing of fences Fences around the substation are might be energised through induced currents from overhead lines passing above. They should always be connected to encircling earth wires. The best is to put the earth wires outside the fence, but risks for theft often makes more practical to put them inside the fence.The most common practice is to connect the fence at corners and every 50m along straight stretches. Gateposts shall always be connected. Fences inside the substation area must also be connected to the earth grid in the same way. However, for straight stretches, connect at every 10m.NOTE: if the fence surrounds an air-core reactor group, the fence must be connected to earth at one place only, and that should be by one gatepost (if there is a gate). If the fence is connected at more than one place, the magnetic field surrounding the reactors will drive very