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Personal, Professional and Ethical Issues in Counseling Material related to textbook chapters two, three, and four. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Personal, Professional and Ethical Issues in Counseling Material related to textbook chapters two, three, and four. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personal, Professional and Ethical Issues in Counseling Material related to textbook chapters two, three, and four. 1

2 Personal Qualities of Effective Counselors  Psychological health - What does this mean? - What would be some warning signs? - Should the counselor undergo treatment?  Self-awareness - What does one need to know about self? - Can you give some examples where knowledge of self would be important?. 2

3 Other characteristics of helpers  Empathic ability - What does this mean? - Carkhuff’s levels of empathy – Text, p.29. - Level 1: The counselor communicates no awareness of client’s feelings - Level 5: The counselor is “tuned in” to clients and responds accurately to their deeper as well as surface feelings. 3

4  Personal warmth - What does this mean?  Genuine interest in others. Authenticity; Desire to help - Is this enough?  Tolerance of ambiguity - What is ambiguity? - Doubtful, uncertain, multiple interpretations - Why is tolerance of this important? - Give some examples. 4

5 One other counselor characteristic  Awareness of values - “Values are the beliefs that determine our goals and how we meet them.” - “A particular combination of values constitutes a world view, which will influence counseling activities.” - “Effective counselors have thought though their values and live by them.”. 5

6  Should therapist’s values be conveyed to clients? - Beware of extreme positions: yes- always : no - never - Corey’s position: “Counselors should be willing to express their values openly when they are relevant to the questions that come up in their sessions with clients.” - He cautions against the extreme positions of 1) holding definite and absolute beliefs and exerting influence on clients to adopt these beliefs and 2) attempting to be value-free. 6

7 Value Issues in Counseling  Five value-laden areas:  Marriage, divorce, extramarital affairs  Alternate lifestyles. AIDS issues  Right to die  Religion  Multicultural and gender differences. 7

8 Case of Joyce  Married, late 30s, 3 children  Very unhappy with marriage  Husband will not join her in counseling  She says she would divorce him if it were not for the children  For now she is ambivalent  How do your beliefs about divorce, marriage, and children influence you?. 8

9  Joyce is talking about having an affair. Do you believe that having an affair would be helpful or destructive for her?  Would you be able to allow her to make this decision? Could you objectively counsel her if her values differed from yours?  Joyce is weighing the value of security against the value of possible growth  Do you value security or growth in these types of situations? What might influence your thinking?. 9

10  One day Joyce tells you she has been having an affair and is pregnant by her partner. She is considering an abortion  Would you attempt to persuade her in any way? What is your role here? What are your values?  Would you have difficulty in working with Joyce if you disagreed with her on any of these issues?  What would your choices be?. 10

11 Other scenarios...  Joyce is single and engaging in unprotected premarital sex. Would you attempt to change her behavior?  If she were using birth control measures and limiting her behavior to one man, would this make a difference to you?  Assume that Joyce is a lesbian. She is not coming to change her sexual orientation, but for help in telling her family. How comfortable would you be working with Joyce?. 11

12 Codes of Ethics  Ethical codes usually have 5 basic principles: 1. Benefit others - do what enhances client well-being 2. Do no harm - avoid high-risk activities 3. Respect others’ autonomy - clients have freedom of thought and freedom to chose their direction. Help clients think clearly and weigh consequences 4. Be just or fair - provide equal or fair treatment to all clients 5. Be faithful - make honest promises and honor these promises  Yet codes are only general guidelines. 12

13 Basic Rights of Clients  Informed consent - clients are told what can be expected concerning therapy  Confidentiality - this is central to developing a trusting relationship, however, it is not absolute. When information may need to be divulged: - child abuse, - abuse of elderly, - there is danger to others or themselves, - patient needs hospitalization - parents may have a right to know. When? - employer may have specific guideline requirements. 13

14  Duty to warn and protect - the Tarasoff Case  Dealing with suicidal clients  The right to a referral  The rights of minors  Avoiding dual relationships  The right to have a competent therapist. 14

15 Conclusion  Counselors/therapists must always strive for the highest standards in ethical and professional conduct even though things are not always clear-cut  When in doubt, consult with other professionals. 15

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