# Chapter 2, Lesson 1 Studying Geography

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Chapter 2, Lesson 1 Studying Geography
It Matters Because: Geography helps us understand our place in the world.

I. Displaying the Earth’s Surface
Why use a globe? 1. Most accurate way to display Earth as it is 2. Modeling Earth on a sphere eliminates distortion 3. All sizes, shapes, distances and directions can be shown as they truly are B. Why use a flat map? 1. Easier to carry than a globe; can be folded & carried anywhere 2. Can show greater detail of small areas 3. Can be used to show many different types of information: a. political boundaries b. physical features c. population

II. Hemispheres A. The Equator B. Prime Meridian
1. Divides Earth into two hemispheres: a. Northern & Southern 2. Measured in degrees of latitude North & South of the Equator B. Prime Meridian 1. Divides Earth into two hemispheres: a. Eastern & Western 2. Measured in degrees of longitude East & West of the Prime Meridian C. Latitude & longitude lines form grid of degrees & minutes D. Locations can be found using coordinates

III. From Globes to Maps A. Lines are distorted when transferred from globe to flat map 1. Distort - stretch, squeeze, or otherwise change shape B. A flat map is a projection of the globe 1. Projection - method of showing Earth on a flat map C. Mapmakers must decide what to distort Landforms usually stretched instead of large empty (ocean) spaces

D. Mercator Projection Shapes of landforms and directions are accurate
Sizes of landforms and distances are not accurate Distortion is greater farther from Equator

E. Robinson Projection Much less distortion on size of landforms
Directions are distorted near poles

IV. Five Themes of Geography
A. Location: where something can be found 1. Absolute Location: latitude & longitude coordinates, street address 2. Relative Location: location in relation to another object or location B. Place: human & physical characteristics of a location C. Human-environment interaction: how humans adapt to modify their environment D. Movement: movement of people & ideas from one location to another E. Region: areas of land with common qualities

V. Types of Maps A. Political B. Physical
1. Shows names and borders of locations (countries, states, etc.) 2. Shows cities and major physical features 3. Colors used to stress political borders B. Physical 1. Shows landforms & water features 2. Displays rivers, deserts, grasslands, mountains, glaciers, etc. 2. Colors used to illustrate features & often elevation

Political Map - Tennessee Counties
Political Map - Tennessee Congressional Districts

Physical Maps - Tennessee landforms & major waterways

VI. Special Purpose Maps
A. Maps can be used to display specific information 1. Population

VI. Special Purpose Maps
2. Voting patterns

VI. Special Purpose Maps
3. Historical

VI. Special Purpose Maps

VII. How Do I Read a Map? A. Understand the map key
1. Explains lines, colors, symbols B. Understand the map scale 1. Scale - explains how distance is calculated on map C. Understand Cardinal Directions 1. north, south, east, and west

VIII. Using Tables, Graphs, & Diagrams
A. To interpret these tools, first read title B. Tables show facts in organized way 1. Arranged in rows & columns 2. Read labels across rows & down columns

VIII. Using Tables, Graphs, & Diagrams
C. Graphs come in many different types 1. Bar - uses wide colored lines to compare data 2. Line - shows change over time 3. Pie - shows data as parts of a whole

VIII. Using Tables, Graphs, & Diagrams
D. Diagram - specialized picture that shows: 1. steps in a process

VIII. Using Tables, Graphs, & Diagrams
2. parts of an object

VIII. Using Tables, Graphs, & Diagrams
3. how something works

IX. Population & Culture
A. Population - number of people living in a certain location 1. Population density - number of people living in a specific area (such as a square mile) 2. Migration - movement of a population from one location to another B. Culture - set of beliefs, behaviors, traits shared by members of a group 1. Cultural Diffusion - when members of more than one culture come together, parts of each culture are shared