Presentation on theme: "Development of female genital system"— Presentation transcript:
1 Development of female genital system Dr. Lubna Nazli
2 Objectives Devp of ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes Devp of external genitaliaCongenital malformations of FGSHermaphrodites: types
3 The primordial germ cells arise from the yolk sac/endoderm and migrate into the intermediate mesoderm
4 Development of ovaries Is from the same source as the testis.The intermediate mesoderm/ genital ridge, is invaded by the sex cells arising from the yolk sac endoderm.These sex cells are having XX chromosomal complement, in absence of SRY gene, the anti-mullerian factor is not produced.
7 The primary sex cords grows into the medulla. They give rise to secondary sex cords.Later they form the primordial ovarian follicles.The mullerian duct system develops parallel to the mesonephric duct.
8 The paramesonephric ducts are formed by infolding of the coelomic epithelium. Parallel to the mesonephric ducts, paramesonephric ducts grows/ Mullerian ducts.
9 Female fetusIn the absence of TDF, medulla regresses and cortical sex cords break up into isolated cell clusters(primordial follicles)in the absence of AMH & testosterone,Mesonephric duct system degeneratesThen, paramesonephric duct system developsInf. fused portionUterovaginal canal -> uterus and upper vaginaCranial unfused portionsOpen into celomic cavity(future peritoneal cavity)Fallopian tubes
10 The PMN duct form the fallopian tubes from the upper 1/3rd, fundus, body and cervix from the fused middle 1/3rd and lower 1/3rd will form the upper part of vagina.
11 The lower end of the duct opens up in the urogenital sinus/ the posterior wall of cloaca. The vagina develops from the sinovaginal bulb.
14 The female external genitalia development At the lower end of the embryo, around the cloacal membrane a median genital tubercle grows and it is called as phallus.On either side of the cloacal membrane, a labioscrotal swellings develop, the fore runner of the labia majora.In female fetus, the labioscrotal swelling will give rise to labia majora.The labia minora is developing from the urethral folds that has not united.The undeveloped phallus remains as clitoris.
17 Unicornuate - Where one of the Müllerian duct fails to develop resulting in a single uterine horn .Bicornuate - Both ducts form but one duct develops to a greater extent than the other.Consequently a small "rudimentary horn" exists, which may end blind or be continuous with the dominant horn.There is usually only one cervix.
18 Double vaginasDouble - Complete failure of fusion of the Müllerian ducts. As a result of the independence of the ducts, two uteri develop, each with their own cervix. In addition one or two vaginas may be found.Septate - Both ducts develop but they only partially fuse. This leaves a septum at the fundus
19 Imperforate hymen If the cloacal membrane does not rupture It will give rise to imperforate hymenA congenital anomaly
21 Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis Normal karyotypes (46, XX or 46, XY)Primordial germ cells do not migrate from the yolk sacNo development of the ovaries or testes
22 Testicular Feminization Syndrome Occurs at rate of 1:50,000Appears to be a normal female despite the presence of testes in either abdomen or inguinal regionTestes produce normal levels of testosteroneTissues unresponsive to androgensExternal genitalia are normalShallow blind ending vagina
23 Hermaphroditism True hermaphrodite Both ovaries and testicular tissue presentMasculine formFeminine formIntermediate form (more common)46, XX/ 46, XY or 46, XX/ 47, XXY
24 Hermaphroditism Female pseudohermaphroditism (46, XX) AKA congenital adrenogenital syndromeMasculinization due to high level of androgens from adrenal cortexMale pseudohermaphroditismTestes and ambiguous female genitaliaMany types, most common is of unknown etiologyOften considered females at a young age because penis is absentRaised as girls until puberty when male secondary sex characteristics appear via endocrine activities of testes
25 Genital system abnormalities Congenital defects in sexual development, usually arising from a variety of chromosomal abnormalities, tend to present clinically with ambiguous external genitaliaKnown as intersex conditions or hermaphroditismClassified according to the histologic appearance of the gonads
26 (1) True hermaphroditism Individuals with true hermaphroditismHave both ovarian and testicular tissueMost commonly as composite ovotestesOccasionally with an ovary on one side and a testis on the otherIn the latter case, a fallopian tube and single uterine horn may develop on the side with the ovary ∵ absence of local AMHExtremely rare condition
27 (2) Pseudohermaphroditism In individuals with pseudohermaphroditism,Genetic sex indicates one genderExternal genitalia has characteristics of the other genderCaused either by abnormal levels of sex hormones or abnormalities in the sex hormone receptors
28 (2) Pseudohermaphroditism Males with pseudohermaphroditismGenetic males with feminized external genitaliaHypospadias(urethral opening on the ventral surface of the penis)Incomplete fusion of the urogenital or labioscrotal folds ; m/c manifesting sx.Females with pseudohermaphroditismGenetic females with virilized external genitaliaClitoral hypertrophySome degree of fusion of the urogenital or labioscrotal folds