Presentation on theme: "Pre-AP Geography The Asian Realm - South Asia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pre-AP Geography The Asian Realm - South Asia llhammon
2 The LandSouth Asia consists of a large peninsula with Sri Lanka a large island near its southern tip.The peninsula that India is located on is also known as a subcontinent – a large landmass smaller than a continent which is bordered on three sides by oceans.
4 South Asia is bordered by the Himalayas to the north, the Arabian sea to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the east.
5 Six countries make up South Asia. IndiaPakistanNepalBhutanBangladeshSri Lanka
6 India is the largest country in South Asia by landmass and population India is the largest country in South Asia by landmass and population. India has the second largest population in the world with a little under a billion people, but by 2025 will be the largest.India is the largest democracy in the world.The Deccan Plateau in the south of India covers 2/3 of the country.Most of the population lives in the northern plains, which are rich agriculturally.
7 Three Great River Systems and the world’s largest alluvial plain are located in South Asia. GangesIndusBrahmaputraSouth Asia has little oil reserves, natural gas, uranium, or coal. They do have mineral deposits, including iron ore and mica. Mineral wealth is greater than oil reserves or natural gas.
10 Climate and Vegetation Climate of South AsiaAlthough much of the subcontinent lies south of the Tropic of Cancer and has a tropical climate, the climates of the northern and western parts of the region vary widely from highlands to deserts.Tropical and Subtropical Climates–The west coast of India, the Ganges Delta, and southern Sri Lanka have tropical rain forest climates.
12 The rain forests absorb much of the heavy annual rainfall. The central Indian steppe and eastern Sri Lanka have a tropical savanna climate, with wet and dry seasons, grasslands, and deciduous forests.A humid subtropical climate extends across Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and northeastern India.Highland ClimatesSnow never melts in the Himalayan highlands
13 On the lower slopes, the climate is temperate and enough to support deciduous and coniferous forests.The foothills support grasslands and stands of bamboo.Dry ClimatesDry climates, which occur along the lower Indus River, produce the Great Indian Desert and the surrounding steppes.Dry deciduous forests cover vast stretches of India’s interior.
14 From June to September the wind direction brings heavy rains in South Asia. This is the wet monsoon. The other times of the year it will be a dry monsoon. Monsoon is a seasonal reversal of winds.
16 Deforestation is a major problem in South Asia Deforestation is a major problem in South Asia. There used to be major forests but now only a small portion is left. “Tree Huggers” are replanting the trees in areas.
17 Natural HazardsBoth the high temperatures of the hot season and the heavy rains of the wet season have positive and negative effects.Extremely high temperatures and lack of rain can dry out the soil, causing drought.Too much rain caused by monsoons brings floods and results in great damage to land and property, as well as loss of human life.
18 Cyclones, another kind of catastrophic weather event, are equally destructive. Earthquakes – throughout the 1990s, India was shaken by frequent major earthquakes. In 1993, an earthquake in Maharashtra in southern India had a death toll estimated at 30,000. In 2001, nearly 20,000 Indians were killed in another devastating earthquake.Tsunamis – also a direct result of earthquakes on ocean floors causes the destruction of coastline cities and towns.
20 Population Patterns South Asia is ethnically diverse. Population density is the greatest on the Indo-Gangetic Plain.South Asia with six countries has a larger population than all of Africa and Southwest Asia combined. (74 countries)Much of the population is migrating from rural to urban areas to find work.
22 Urban and Rural LifeMost of South Asia’s population is rural. Even in Pakistan, South Asia’s most urbanized country, two-thirds of the population lives in rural areas.Rural life–Rural life in South Asia has changed little over hundreds of years.– People farm, live in villages, and struggle to grow enough crops to feed their families. (subsistence agriculture)
23 South Asia is also home to nomadic groups that herd camels, goats, or yaks for a living. Growing Urbanization – In recent years, many South Asians have moved to cities, drawn by the hope of better jobs.The resulting overpopulation causes shortages in housing, health care, and educational facilities, as well as serious pollution.South Asia’s cities are among the world’s most densely populated urban areas.Important cities in the region include Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Dhaka, and Karachi.
24 Mumbai, India’s main port on the Arabian Sea as well as its largest city, has a population of more than 15 million.
26 History and Government The __________ Valley was home to one of the world’s first great civilizations.Many people have conquered South Asia, from the Aryans to the British.Two of the world’s great religions – ___________________ and Buddhism – originated in South Asia.The ____________ arrived around 1500s –came for the resources/riches – ruled for 4c. Built the RR system and major cities grew – Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai.
30 Modern South AsiaIndependenceMohandas K. ________________ inspired Indians to protest British rule by nonviolent means.He worked to end the rigid social system.He became known as Mahatma, or “Great Soul.”British India gained its independence in ___________________, but was divided along religious lines.
31 Areas with a Hindu majority became ____________. Those with a Muslim majority became _______________, which was separated into two sections – East Pakistan and West Pakistan, by about 1,000 miles of land belonging to India.
32 In _____________, Ceylon gained its independence from Britain and in 1972 it began using its ancient name – Sri Lanka.In 1971, East Pakistan revolted against West Pakistan and became the new country of __________________.The western part retained the name Pakistan.
34 Regional ConflictsSince independence, India and Pakistan have fought over the disputed province of Kashmir.Today, both countries have ____________ weapons.Since the 1980s, Sri Lanka has been torn apart by fighting between the Sinhalese-led government and Tamil rebel forces.Sri Lanka has been on the brink of outright civil war since the 1980s.
36 Today’s GovernmentsIndia, often called the world’s largest democracy is a federal parliamentary republic.For 40 years after independence, members of the Nehru family headed India’s government.After political assassinations in 1984 and 1991, the country settled into relative stability.
37 Pakistan is a parliamentary republic that has endured many years of military rule. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are parliamentary republics, where intense political or ethnic rivalries have made stable government difficult.Nepal and Bhutan are ruled by monarchies that are trying to modernize and still keep some power.
38 Culture and Lifestyles South Asians speak many different languages. India alone has 17 major languages and hundreds of dialects. (Sanskirt was first)Main religions are Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism. India – major religion Hinduism.Also have Christianity, Jainism, and Sikhism.
39 Important part of Hinduism is the caste system, which divides society into four categories. It is a social stratification – multilayered culture controlled by the powerful priests. British tried to eliminate it. It is technically against the law, but still practiced in the rural areas and some large cities.Caste SystemPerform only certain jobsWear only certain clothesWorship at certain places.Not able to go up or down a level in the system
41 Southern Peninsula isolated – distinct sub-region Southern Peninsula isolated – distinct sub-region. Dravidians are here – speak a different language from the rest of India.Most of South Asia has low SOL and life expectancy is short.There have been improvements in health care and education in recent years.
42 Two Great ReligionsHinduism and Buddhism have had a profound influence on South Asia.
43 HinduismHinduism, which grew out of Aryan culture and religion, expects everyone to recognize and carry out his or her dharma, or moral duty.Hindus believe in reincarnation until the soul achieves perfection.Good deeds help a person achieve perfection; evil deeds tie one to the endless wheel of rebirth.
44 Hindus worship many gods and goddesses, which are often seen as different forms of one eternal being.Festival of goddess Durga
45 BuddhismBuddhism is based on the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama, who during the 500s BCE left his family and riches to seek the true nature of human existence.Known as the Buddha, or Awakened One, Siddhartha urged people to achieve contentment by working diligently, thinking clearly, showing compassion, and avoiding attachment to material things.
46 In some places, new forms of Buddhism blended with local practices. A Marriage of Influences Buddhism eventually spread from India to other countries.In some places, new forms of Buddhism blended with local practices.Death of the Buddha
47 Living in South Asia There have been agricultural advances. Some South Asians still use oxen, water buffalo, yaks, and elephants to pull plows and to haul water and other loads.Agricultural Improvements South Asian farmers are beginning to apply new technology to farming.Modern irrigation, pest control,and fertilization are helping to increase output.
48 Agricultural Conditions In the Himalayan highlands, farmers practice terrace farming on the steep slopes.Crops include fruit in Pakistan’s valleys and rice in Bangladesh and along most of South Asia’s rivers.Sri Lanka’s Plantations Most of India’s farms are small, but huge tea, rubber, and coconut plantations established by Europeans are located in Sri Lanka.These plantations take up so much land that Sri Lankans must import much of their food.
49 South Asian Crops Jute, cotton, tea, rubber, coconuts, bananas, and rice grown for export, are the major cash crops. Other crops include wheat, millet, spices, peanuts, cashews, and sugarcane.The Green Revolution During the 1960s, mechanized farming using new crop varieties sought to increase and diversify crop yields in developing countries
50 As a result, India’s wheat and rice production has increased. Mining and FishingMineral wealth Iron ore, low-grade coal, bauxite, and copper are mined in India.India’s Brass
51 South Asian Industries Graphite is mined in Sri Lanka.Pakistan and India have some oil reserves.Pakistan and Bangladesh have rich natural gas reserves.Fishing Fish is a staple food in South Asia. Several South Asian countries also export fish..South Asian IndustriesIndia’s Evolving Economy After independence India carried out socialist policies that set economic goals and closely regulated private industry.
52 India’s government also preferred to be economically self-sufficient, discouraged foreign investment.Short-term success was followed by a slow-down.During the 1980s India began welcoming foreign companies and investors.In 1991, India began moving toward a free market economy.Light Industry Textile production is a major light industry in South Asia. Thirty-eight million Indians work in the textile industry.
53 Heavy Industry Heavy industries in South Asia produce iron, steel, cement, and heavy machinery. Service Industries More and more South Asians, especially Indians and Pakistanis, work in service industries such as transportation, banking, and administration.The High –Technology Sector The high-technology industry has grown rapidly in South Asia
54 India, for example, is the world’s second-largest exporter of software, earning $5 billion in software trade with the United States in the year 2000.
55 Gems (jewelry) are the number one export, then clothing. Western India more industrialized than the east.South Asia is the only geographic realm on Earth that consists entirely of countries in the lowest income category.
56 Tourism•South Asian countries draw millions of foreign visitors each year.• In recent years, border disputes and ethnic and tribal conflicts have discouraged many tourists from visiting South Asia.• Some countries restrict tourism for environment or religious reasons.• However, ecotourism, may be a profitable alternative to such restrictions.
58 Managing Natural Resources WildlifeSouth Asia combines high population density with fragile ecosystems.South Asian countries try to manage their environments by using their resources at a sustainable rate.Deforestation and irrigation have reduced the habitats of elephants, water buffalo, crocodiles, tigers, and other wild animals.Governments are creating wildlife reserves and restricting logging in an effort to help preserve the animals.
59 WaterMuch of South Asia’s population has limited access to clean water.For example, 80 percent of India’s population has no access to sanitation facilities.Under such conditions, untreated sewage pollutes water supplies that people depend on for normal daily use.
60 The Narmada River Dilemma South Asian countries have built dams to provide hydroelectricity and to help areas that suffer from drought.Dams, however, also trap silt and bacteria and often flood the areas where they are built.Building a dam across India’s Narmada River would irrigate millions of acres of arid land and provide hydroelectric power.However, it also would force the removal of nearby farmers from their villages.
62 ForestsCommercial logging has destroyed many of South Asia’s old growth forests.Slash-and-burn agriculture has also contributed to the damage.The loss of forests contributes to higher temperatures, erosion, loss of wildlife, and agriculture productivity.
63 Seeking SolutionsScientists are studying ways to combat South Asia’s severe air pollution problem.Meteorologists using modern technology are working to predict the annual monsoons.Accuracy in predicting the monsoons will help people protect their property and lives from storm damage.Many Bengali people live on islands made of layers of silt floating on the surface of coastal water.
64 In heavy rains these layers break up, and people lose their homes, their possessions, and even their lives.Studies of this erosion may lead to solutions and help save lives.