Education Undergraduate Four years at a college or university to obtain a BS or BA degree Average tuition in 2011: $21,189 Medical School Four years at a LCME accredited medical school attaining a doctor o medicine degree (MD) After completing undergraduate, a physician still must obtain a license from a state of the United States in which they are planning to practice. They apply for the permanent license after completing a series of exams and completing a minimum number of years of graduate medical education. Average tuition in 2011: $28,719
Residency program Graduated MDs enter into a residency program that is three to seven years or more of professional training under the supervision of senior physician educators. The length of residency training varies depending on the medical specialty chosen
Fellowship One to three years of additional training in a subspecialty is an option for some doctors who want to become highly specialized in a particular field.
Overview Salary: $150,000-$300,000 Salary: $150,000-$300,000 Years in school: 10-15 Years in school: 10-15 Retirement age: 68-72 Retirement age: 68-72
Education There are few to no positions available with only a B.S. These jobs are typically lab assistant positions with little room for career expansion. A master’s in genetics helps, but to have authority in research and development a Ph.D. or M.D. is required. Four to six years of school after completion of an undergraduate degree is the norm. The first two years are spent taking advanced science classes, and the remainder is focused on a personal research project. Most research projects are done with grants from the university, the government or private pharmaceutical companies
Salary A professor of genetics could expect to make around $57,000, while a medical geneticist with an MD could make $90,000 to $125,000.
Typical work week Research and health professionals have some control over their work schedules, but often work more than 40 hours every week. For researchers, experiments may take many hours to complete, or require lab work several days in a row. In addition to the laboratory and/or field work required to perform the studies, researchers must read the scientific literature, analyze their own data, and prepare manuscripts of their work for scientific journals. Also, most medical research is quite expensive, and researchers are responsible for competing nationally for funding to support their work by writing successful grant applications.
Education scientists who work in wildlife biology are trained in wildlife biology, as well as zoology, botany, chemistry and mathematics. Most employers require at least a bachelor's degree for entry-level positions. The U.S. Geological Survey requires applicants to have at least nine semester hours in subjects like mammalogy, animal ecology, wildlife management and ornithology. A Wildlife Biologist who wishes to advance to management or supervisory positions should consider earning a Ph.D.
Job outlook Employment of zoologists and wildlife biologists is expected to grow 21 percent over the next decade, which is faster than average for all occupations Most live on the west coast or south east Most live on the west coast or south east
Overview High level of responsibilities High level of responsibilities Little pressure with deadlines Little pressure with deadlines High levels of critical decision making High levels of critical decision making Salary: Salary: $62,500 Years in school: 4-6 Years in school: 4-6