Presentation on theme: "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. - Ludwig Wittgenstein."— Presentation transcript:
The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. - Ludwig Wittgenstein
An Introduction to Documenting Research Sources ENL 111, Dr. Vavra
What IS “Documentation”? “Documentation” denotes various formats for indicating in your writing where your source materials (articles, books, interviews, web pages, etc.) come from. In other words, “documentation” enables readers of your writing to find your sources.
Why Are We Looking at Documentation Now? A requirement of this course is that you learn how to research for information on a topic and then efficiently document that research in one or more papers. But before you start to do research, it makes sense to know what you will need to efficiently use the sources in writing a paper. That is the purpose of this presentation.
The Purposes of Documentation Documentation has four primary purposes, one negative, and three positive: To avoid plagiarism, To give credit where it is due, To enable readers to find your sources, and To add to your own credibility.
The Formats of Documentation We live in a free country. As a result, there is no one who can tell us how to format documentation. As a result, there are several different formats for documenting sources. (Don’t complain. If we want freedom, we need to pay for it.)
Formats for Documentation - 1 MLA (from the Modern Language Association) APA (from the American Psychological Association) Various formats in databases
Formats for Documentation - 2 We will be using the MLA format. In some courses you will be expected to use APA, but the differences between the two are mainly a question of what information goes where in the format. (We will look at the differences in a later class.)
Formats for Documentation - 3 In MLA format, for example, the title of the work comes immediately after the author’s name: Carr, Nicholas. The Shallows – What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains. N.Y.: W.W. Norton, 2010. In APA format, the date comes right after the author’s name: Carr, Nicholas. (2010) The Shallows – What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains. N.Y.: W.W. Norton. When there are several works in a list by one author, in MLA they are arranged in alphabetical order by title. In APA, they are arranged by date, with the most recent first.
The Two Parts of Documentation Works Cited (and/or) Bibliography Framing - We will explore framing later in the course.
Works Cited and/or Bibliography A “Works Cited” is an alphabetical list of all the sources (works) that you cited (used) in your paper. A “Bibliography” usually includes everything in the Works Cited, but also includes other sources that the writer believes are relevant to the topic.
The following is an example of part of an MLA Works Cited list. Foster, Kristy. "Marcellus Shale Drilling: Can Safe Water Supply Be Sustained?" Farm and Dairy - The Auction Guide and Rural Marketplace. Farm and Dairy, 24 Sept. 2010. Web. 01 Nov. 2010. Hartstein, Arthur M. Environmenta Benefits of Advanced Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Technology. Washington DC: US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, Oct. 1999. Pdf. 01 Nov. 2010. "Science Centric | News | 'Fracking' Mobilises Uranium in Marcellus Shale." Science Centric -- Science, Health and Technology, Breaking News. Science Centric, 26 Oct. 2010. Web. 01 Nov. 2010.
The Parts of a Works Cited Citation What is included in a “Works Cited” citation depends upon the kind of source you have used—a book, a magazine or journal article, a web page, a personal interview. You will be shown how to use the Purdue OWL, a widely recognized source for formatting documentation.
In-text Citations for MP # 2 We will be looking at in-text citations in more detail later in the course. For MP # 2 what you need to know is that an in-text citation is placed in parentheses after the material that you quote or paraphrase. What goes in the in-text citation is the minimal amount of information needed to find the source in the “Works Cited” list plus the page number on which that material appears.
An Important Suggestion As you write your draft of a paper, include the in-text citations in the draft. Far too many students do not do this. Then they can’t find the sources when they go back to “revise” the paper. The result is that they end up with a serious plagiarism problem. (Remember that part of my job is to check your citations against the copies of your sources that you will be giving me.)
Quiz (You can use your notes.) 1. What are the four purposes of documentation? (20 each) 2. Explain the difference between a “Works Cited” and a “Bibliography.” (20)