2 LandLand bridge- Narrow strip of land that joins two larger landmassesMexico- top of the land bridge that connects North America and South AmericaSierra Madre- “Mother Range”- made of three mountain rangesSmall population live in the Sierra Madre Mountains,
3 Land Continued Many mountains are volcanoes Earthquakes occur often because of the meeting of plates undergroundIxtacihuatl is a beautiful inactive volcano near Mexico City.
4 Plateau of MexicoLarge flat center of Mexico surrounded by the Sierra Madre Mountains
5 Plateau of Mexico continued North- mainly deserts and grassy plainsBroad flat valleys in the center of the plateau hold most of major cities and most of the peopleMexico City- capital Mexico located in the southern end of the Plateau of MexicoCoastal Lowlands- lowland plains between the ocean and the mountains
6 Climate Latitude- Location north or south of the equator Tropic of Cancer- latitude that is 23 degrees north of the equator and crosses the middle of MexicoThe area south of the Tropic of Cancer has a tropical climate, warm climates throughout the year. (more rainfall)Areas north of the Tropic of Cancer are warm in summer and cool in winters (drier climate)
7 Climate continued Altitude- height above sea level Mountainous areas have cooler temperature because of higher altitudeSea level areas have a warmer climate
8 Average rainfall Rainfall varies through Mexico Northern areas are dryer, southern areas receive more rainHurricanes- fierce tropical storms, can strike Mexico during summer
9 Mexican Regions Northern Mexico Dry climate and rocky ground; Not good for growing crops without irrigationLarge cattle ranchesVaqueros- cowhands that developed tools and techniques for roping, branding, and herding cattle
10 Desert areasDry areas in Northern Region form desert lands
11 Major Cities of Northern Mexico Monterrey- Mexico’s main producer of steel and cementTijuana and Ciudad Juarez- Cities that border the United States. The U.S. has built factories here.Maquiladoras- factories that assemble parts made in other countries, such as the United States, are found in northern Mexico
12 Central Mexico Region in which more than half of Mexico’s people live Mild temperatures and pleasant climate year round caused people to settle hereFertile soil is good for farmingLarge industrial cities such as Mexico City and Guadalajara prosper in Central Mexico
13 Southern Mexico Poorest region of Mexico, very mountainous Subsistance farms- Small farms on which farmers grow only enough food to feed their familiesCoastal areas of Southern Mexico have rich soil with large plantations- large farms that sell a single crop
14 North American Free Trade Agreement Trade agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico made in 1994Under this agreement most goods are free of tariffs, special taxesDesigned to increase trade among these three countries, rather than other countries because of no taxesAmericans fear that manufacturers will move factories to Mexico where labor is cheaperDebate over NAFTA is still going on.
16 Mexico’s GovernmentFederal republic- power is divided between the national and state governmentsUnited states also has a federal republicMexico has a very powerful president, but no vice- presidentPresident is more powerful than the legislative or judicial branch
17 Economics Large population growth; people moving to cities National debt- money owed by the governmentPollution- smog caused by a mixture of chemicals and fog in the air.Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, has tremendous smog problems. (Air is trapped by the mountains)