Presentation on theme: "NVSC 210-502 LtCol J. D. Fleming 21 October 2014."— Presentation transcript:
NVSC 210-502 LtCol J. D. Fleming 21 October 2014
Groups are essential if leaders are to impact anything beyond their own behavior. Group perspective looks at how different group characteristics can affect relationships both with the leader and among the followers.
Four ways to distinguish teams from groups ◦ Team members usually have a stronger sense of identification among themselves than group members do. ◦ Teams have common goals or tasks. ◦ Task interdependence typically is greater with teams than with groups. ◦ Team members often have more differentiated and specialized roles than group members. Teams can be considered as highly specialized groups.
Group: Two or more persons interacting with one another in a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person. ◦ Leaders and followers influence each other freely ◦ People may belong to many different groups where they have different roles ◦ Groups are not the same as Organizations
Group Size Developmental Stages of Groups Group Roles Group Cohesion Communication permeates all group concepts
Leader emergence is partly a function of group size. As groups become larger, cliques are more likely to develop. Group size (leader’s Span of Control) can affect a leader’s behavioral style. Group size affects, but does not solely determine, group effectiveness
Additive task: A task where the group’s output simply involves the combination of individual outputs. Process losses: Inefficiencies created by more and more people working together. Social loafing: Phenomenon of reduced effort by people when they are not individually accountable for their work. Social facilitation: People increasing their level of work due to the presence of others
Stages of groups development: ◦ Forming (information gathering) ◦ Storming (conflict, heightened emotions) ◦ Norming (leader emergence, group cohesion developed) ◦ Performing (independent roles focused on group task) These stages are important because: ◦ People are in many more “leaderless” groups than they may realize. ◦ Leaders should understand the stages of group development for the potential relationships between leadership behaviors and group cohesiveness and productivity. Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Example Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing Example
Group roles: Sets of expected behaviors associated with particular jobs or positions. Task Role (getting the job done) Initiating Information Seeking Information Sharing Summarizing Evaluating Guiding Relationship Role (Supporting group relationships) Harmonizing Encouraging Gatekeeping Dysfunctional Roles (Impede group performance) Dominating Blocking Attacking Distracting
Norms: Informal rules groups adopt to regulate and regularize group members’ behavior. Norms are more likely to be seen as important and apt to be enforced if they: ◦ Facilitate group survival. ◦ Simplify, or make more predictable, what behavior is expected of group members. ◦ Help the group to avoid embarrassing interpersonal problems. ◦ Express the central values of the group and clarify what is distinctive about the group’s identity.
Group cohesion: “The glue that keeps a group together” and is the sum of the forces that attract members to a group, provides resistance to leaving it, and motivates them to be active in it. Highly cohesive groups interact with and influence each other more than do less cohesive groups. ◦ Greater cohesiveness does not always lead to higher performance. ◦ Highly cohesive groups may have lower absenteeism and lower turnover. ◦ Highly cohesive groups may sometimes develop goals contrary to the larger organization’s goals.
Overbounding: Tendency of highly cohesive groups to erect fences or boundaries between themselves and others. Groupthink: People in highly cohesive groups often become more concerned with striving for unanimity than in objectively appraising different courses of action. Ollieism (variation of groupthink): Occurs when illegal actions are taken by overly zealous and loyal subordinates who believe that what they are doing will please their leaders. ◦ The illegal actions occur without consent from the group leader
Key characteristics for effective team performance: ◦ Clear mission ◦ High performance standards ◦ Take stock of equipment, training facilities and opportunities, and outside resources to help team ◦ Assess the technical skills of team members ◦ Secure those resources and equipment necessary for team effectiveness ◦ Planning and organizing ◦ High levels of communication ◦ Minimize interpersonal conflicts
Four variables that need to be in place for a team to work effectively: ◦ Task structure (Clear, meaningful, results) ◦ Group boundaries (appropriate number, skills, maturity) ◦ Norms (imported, reinforced, developed) ◦ Authority (flexible plan, competent and empowered leader)
Think of a group that you are in now, (NROTC, Corps of Cadets, outfit, etc) what norms are a part of the group? Think of the Armed Forces of the United States. Is it a team or a group? Why? Is a team successful only if it achieves its goal? If the Fish Drill Team goes to compete at an event and does not win, was it a failure? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAX9b7agT9o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAX9b7agT9o
Counseling ◦ Read BUPERS 1610.10C (pp. 18-1 – 18-7) posted on web site Keep working on group projects