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Internal Analysis: Distinctive Competencies, Competitive Advantage, and Profitability Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Internal Analysis: Distinctive Competencies, Competitive Advantage, and Profitability Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internal Analysis: Distinctive Competencies, Competitive Advantage, and Profitability Chapter 3

2 Internal Analysis: Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses Managers must understand –The role of resources, capabilities, and distinctive competencies in the process by which companies create value and profit –The importance of superior efficiency, innovation, quality, and responsiveness to customers –The sources of their company’s competitive advantage (strengths and weaknesses)

3 Distinctive Competences and Competitive Advantage Distinctive competencies –Firm-specific strengths that allow a company to gain competitive advantage by differentiating its products and/or achieving lower costs than its rivals –Arise from unique application of resources and acquisition of capabilities

4 The Role of Resources Resources –Capital or financial, physical, social or human, technological, and organizational factor endowments Tangible and intangible A firm-specific and difficult to imitate resource is likely to lead to distinctive competency A valuable resource that creates strong demand for a firm’s products may lead to distinctive competency

5 The Role of Capabilities Capabilities –A company’s skills at coordinating and using its resources Capabilities are the product of organizational structure, processes, and control systems We must add people, particularly leadership in building the structure, etc.

6 Strategy, Resources, Capabilities, and Competencies

7 A Critical Distinction If a firm has firm-specific and valuable resources, it must also have the capability to use them effectively to create distinctive competency A firm can create distinctive competency without firm-specific and valuable resources if it has unique capabilities

8 Competitive Advantage, Value Creation, and Profitability Profitability factors –Amount of value customers place on the company’s products –Price charged –Costs of creating the value

9 Value Creation and Pricing Options

10 Comparing Toyota and General Motors

11 Differentiation and Cost Structure: Roots of Competitive Advantage

12 The Value Chain A company is a chain of activities for transforming inputs into outputs that customers value The transformation process is composed of primary and support activities that add value to the product

13 The Value Chain: Primary and Support Activities

14 The Generic Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage

15 Exercise Strategy in Action 3.2: Southwest Airlines What portions of the value chain does Southwest Airlines work on to create value for its customers? Why these portions rather than the more significant costs like fuel?

16 Efficiency The quantity of inputs it takes to produce a given output. Usually measured as outputs over inputs; examples of latter –No. of employees –Capital investment Productivity leads to greater efficiency and lower costs –Employee productivity –Capital productivity

17 Quality Superior quality = customer perception of greater value in a specific product’s attributes –Form, features, performance, durability, reliability, style, design Quality products = goods and services that are reliable and that are differentiated by attributes that customers perceive to have higher value

18 Quality (cont’d) The impact of quality on competitive advantage –High-quality products increase the value of (differentiate) the products in customers’ eyes –Greater efficiency and lower unit costs are associated with reliable products

19 A Quality Map for Automobiles

20 Innovation The act of creating new, commercially viable products or processes –Product innovation Creates products that customers perceive as more valuable, increasing the company’s pricing options –Process innovation Creates value by lowering production costs Perhaps the most important building block of competitive advantage

21 Responsiveness to Customers Doing a better job than competitors of identifying and satisfying customers’ needs –Superior quality and innovation are integral to superior responsiveness to customers –Customizing goods and services to the unique demands of individual customers or customer groups

22 Responsiveness to Customers (cont’d) Sources of enhanced customer responsiveness –Customer response time, design, service, after-sales service and support Differentiates a company’s products; leads to brand loyalty and premium pricing

23 Value Creation per Unit

24 Analyzing Competitive Advantage and Profitability Benchmarking company performance against that of competitors and the company’s own historic performance Return on invested capital Net profit = Total revenues – Total costs

25 Definitions of Basic Accounting Terms

26 Drivers of Profitability (ROIC)

27 Ways to Increase ROIC Increase the company’s return on sales –Reduce cost of goods sold –Reduce spending on sales force, marketing, general, and administrative expenses –Reduce R&D spending –Increase sales revenue more than costs Increase sales revenues from invested capital –Reduce the amount of working capital –Reduce amount of fixed capital

28 The Durability of Competitive Advantage Barriers to Imitation –Imitating Resources –Imitating Capabilities Capability of Competitors –Strategic commitment –Absorptive capacity Industry Dynamism

29 Why Companies Fail Inertia –Companies find it difficult to change their strategies and structures Prior strategic commitments –Limit a company’s ability to imitate and cause competitive disadvantage The Icarus paradox –A company can become so specialized based on past success that it loses sight of market realities –Craftsmen, builders, pioneers, salesmen

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