5 Phase 1 of letters and sounds There are 7 aspects of this phase:Environmental sounds.Instrumental soundsBody percussionRhythm and rhymeAlliteration (words that begin with the same sound)Voice SoundsOral blending and segmenting
13 All phase 1 activities are designed to help children: Listen attentively (active listening – not just responding through habit)Enlarge their vocabularySpeak confidently to adults and other childrenDiscriminate soundsReproduce audibly the sounds they hear, in order, all through the word, emphasising clear speechUse sound talk to break up a word (c-a-t)
14 Phonics Consists of: Identifying sounds in spoken words Recognising the common spellings of each phoneme.Blending phonemes into words for reading.Segmenting words into phonemes for spelling.
15 How many phonemes can you hear in Some DefinitionsA PhonemeThis is the smallest unit of sound in a word.How many phonemes can you hear incat?
17 Phase 2 In order to progress in phase 2- children need to be able to: Distinguish between speech and other soundsHear sounds in wordsOrally blend sounds to build wordsRecognise rhyming wordsListening activities continue to be an important part of phase 2 in order to develop these skills
18 Phase 2 continuedThe purpose of phase 2 is to teach at least 19 letters and move children on from orally building sounds into words, to blending and segmenting with letters. They are also taught to read by sight ‘Tricky words’ that can not be read by sounding. The first 5 tricky words are: I the to no go
19 Enunciation (The correct way to say a sound) Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation.Phonemes (sounds) should be articulated clearly and precisely.
20 The sequence in which letters are taught Letters are taught in small groupsSet 1: s a t pSet 2: i n m dSet 3: g o c kSet 4 ck e u rSet 5 h b f,ff l,ll ss
21 Activities we do in phase 2 Looking at letter shapes as initial sounds: tell me something that begins with … I spy choose a toy – what sound does it begin with, can you show me a letter…Listening to sounds to blend – action game can you c,l,a,p? Robot gameLooking at sounds to blend – sounding out words – treasure chest gameSplitting up words in order to spell them- segmenting- what sounds can you hear in….
22 Other key points to phase 2 Letters are taught as sounds – children need to know the sound first and then the letter name.Children will practise letter formation but are able to use tools like magnetic letters in order to use their phonics skills, even if their fine motor skills are not yet well developed.They will be encouraged to first read individual words and then phrases. The first words they read may be VC or CVC words. (We will give them a reading book when they know at least 20 letter sounds and the phase 2 words.)They will be encouraged to write words and then phrasesWriting that is not recognisable to an adult is called emergent writing and is all part of their learning to write journey, and should be encouraged.
23 Phase 3Children entering phase three will know about 19 letter sounds and be able to blend and segment simple two-letter words e.g. it, on. They may also be able to blend and segment three-letter words.
24 Phase 3 teaches:the remaining 25 phonemes, many of which consist of two letters e.g. oo, shthe letter namesthe tricky words he, she, me, we, be, was, my, you, her, they, all, are.We continue to practise and develop the blending and segmenting skills begun in phase 2.
25 Grapheme Key Vocabulary DigraphTrigraphSplit diagraph2 letters making one sound ( ai, ee, oo)3 letters making one sound ( igh , dge )Where the two letters are not adjacent( a-e, e-e )
27 Issues arising from phase 3 Learning to spot digraphs when readingconfusing th and flearning to blend more quickly and recognise some words on sight so that reading isn’t too labour-intensiveattempting to read and write multi-syllable wordstrying to sound out words using letter names rather than sounds
28 Phase 4This is a consolidation unit. There are no new graphemes to learn. Reading and spelling of tricky words continues.Segmenting adjacent consonants in words and applying this in spelling.Blending adjacent consonants in words and applying this skill when reading unfamiliar texts.
29 They are assessed regularly and groupings are sorted accordingly. The children always work within the phase that is appropriate to their level of learning.They are assessed regularly and groupings are sorted accordingly.Therefore the suggested model of year group and corresponding phase, does not always go hand in hand with the year group that your child is actually in.