Presentation on theme: "FWM 203 PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:
FWM 203 PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA
Definition of Terms Conservation is the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations, while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of future generations. Conservation as rendered involves preservation, maintenance, sustainable utilization, restoration and enhancement of the natural environment. Wildlife or Wild animal species refers to all living things, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates outside the direct control of man (that is, all non-cultivated plants and non-domesticated animals). It embraces all animals in their natural habitat. They are undomesticated animals which may be small organisms only visible to humans if seen through a microscope or as big as the elephant or whale. Wildlife includes but it is not limited to insects, spiders and birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians, and mammals if not domesticated (NCF, 1994). Biodiversity or Biological diversity refers to the total variability of living organisms on the planet (UNEP, 1995). It is defined in terms of genes, species and ecosystem which are the outcome of over 3,000 million years of evolution. As biological concept, biodiversity is an essential or a necessary tool for human survival.
Definition of Terms (CONTD) Wildlife management has been defined as the combination and application of business methods and ecological knowledge to manipulate undomesticated fauna and flora (wild animal and plant) resources in a way that ensures their products and services will be sustained. The application of ecological principles and knowledge to the management of wildlife entails certain basic approaches viz: Preservation of wild species and allowing nature to follow a balance, devoid of any human intervention. Direct or indirect manipulations of wild fauna population such as through cropping, culling, habitat alteration and other habitat management tool so as not to exceed carrying capacity. Maintenance of useful and desirable species. Sustained-yield management through limiting consumptive utilization to annual production capacity.
Definition of Terms (CONTD) Consumptive utilization is the extraction of resources for the production of consumer goods and services. Apart from providing food other types of consumptive uses of wildlife include products such as skins and hides, materials for hand crafts, or ceremonial uses, oils and medicines, live animal trades, sport, hunting, stock resources for domestication or improvement of domesticated breeds, farming activities and mineral resources exploitation. All activities directed towards production of goods and services which often lead to the degradation of the environment. Non-consumptive utilization is defined as the provision of natural amenities and services for recreational use such as game viewing, nature trail, swimming, boating and other water related recreational activities in lake and waterfall. It includes spiritual and religious values, values due to the willingness of local and international user-public (tourist) to pay to see living and non-living resources in the natural setting. Sustainable use is the rate of harvest within the capacity of species and their habitats to maintain themselves. Sustainable use can be non-consumptive or consumptive in nature. Commercial use is defined as the management of native wildlife for profit. The terms utilization and commercial use are interchangeable.
Status Categories of Species Extinct (Ex); species has not been seen in the wild or in captivity during the past 50 years. Extinct In the Wild (BW): As above, but the species is still held in zoological gardens on other live collection. Ecological Extinction is defined as the reduction of a species to such low abundance that though it is still present in the community, it no longer interacts significantly with other species.
Status Categories of Species Extirpation : species is not extinct, but no longer occurring in a wild state or no longer exhibiting patterns of use. Critically Endangered (CR): The species is very threatened and at risk of becoming extinct. Endangered (EN): Any native species in immense danger of extirpation or extinction. Species is unlikely to survive if the factor thus is posing threat persists. Vulnerable (VU): Likely to become endangered in the future if factor that is posing threat persists.
Status Categories of Species Near Threatened (NT): Species is approaching the threshold of vulnerability. Data Deficient (DD): Strongly suspected or thought to belong to one of the above categories but data is insufficient to substantiate. Rare (R): Species has small global population that is not threatened but is at risk.
Status Categories of Species Low Risk-Conservation Dependent (LR/CD): Species is in no immediate danger, but survival will depend on implementation of effective conservation measures in its range. Low Risk-Not threatened (LR/NT): Species is in no immediate danger, but needs to be consistently monitored. (Adapted from IUCN threatened species categories 1996)
NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are naturally occurring resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource is meant any physical entity, which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples of natural resources are: Air, wind and atmosphere Plants (Flora) Animals (Fauna) Wildlife Forest Coal and fossil fuelsfossil fuels Range and pasture Soils Water, oceans, lakes and rivers
NATURAL RESOURCES Biotic Natural Resources: Natural resources extracted from the biosphere of earth are categorized as biotic. The biotic resources can be obtained in the raw form, or by means of cultivation through agriculture. Petroleum is a resource that has to be included in the category of biotic natural resources. This is because, it has an organic origin. The following list provides names of resources directly obtained from the biosphere. Timber, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Fruits, Wax (tree wax).Natural Gas Abiotic Natural Resources: Minerals, metals and other such materials (non-living) fall in the category of abiotic natural resources.The different abiotic natural resources are enlisted below. Gold, Coal,Diamond, Silver, Bauxite, Nickel, Copper, Limestone e.t.c.Diamond
THE NEED FOR CONSERVATION It is known that man’s survival, comfort and development depends largely on materials obtainable from natural resources. We rely on these resources for air, food, water, clothing, shelter minerals and drugs. However, these resources can become non –renewable if the demand and utilization exceeds its recycling capacity. In this case, exploitation is said to have exceeded the rate of the production of these resources. Indicators of such hazard exploitation of such natural resources in Nigeria include: (1) Increase desertification and drought in the north. (2) Soil erosion and gully erosion e.g in Gombe & Eastern States (3)Deforestation in the west (4)It result in poor yield of crops in farmlands that are not artificially fertilised (5)It results in the decline in the population of wild flora and fauna species.
SPECIES LOSS: A GLOBAL CONCERN Available evidence indicates that human activities are leading to the loss of the planets’ biological diversity which implies erosion of biological resources that are essential for future development. For instance it has been observed that normal states of extinction (disappearance of species) of many of the world’s biological resources have accelerated and result of on going destruction of forests and other biological rich habitats. It is estimated that by the year 2020, one million or more species of plants animals and other microbes would have been lost to the planet (United Nation Agenda 21, 1993).
FACTORS THAT HINDERS SPECIES ABUNDANCE 1.Changing environment 2.Man – wild life conflict 3.Hunting and poaching 4.The use of mammals as foods 5.Wild mammals as pests 6.Wild mammals as disease vectors 7.Economic policies 8.Climaterics: changes in weather condition 9.Pollution
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES In-situ Conservation In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. Conserving the areas where populations of species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity.
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES Ex-situ Conservation Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site conservation". Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. This involves conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated species, and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Some of these include: Gene banks, e.g. seed banks, sperm and ova banks, field banks;
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES In vitro plant tissue and microbial culture collections; Captive breeding of animals and artificial propagation of plants, with possible reintroduction into the wild; and Collecting living organisms for zoos, aquaria, and botanic gardens for research and public awareness.
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES Ex-situ conservation measures can be complementary to in-situ methods as they provide an "insurance policy" against extinction. These measures also have a valuable role to play in recovery programmes for endangered species. The Kew Seed Bank in England has 1.5 per cent of the world's flora - about 4,000 species - on deposit. In agriculture, ex-situ conservation measures maintain domesticated plants which cannot survive in nature unaided. Ex- situ conservation provides excellent research opportunities on the components of biological diversity. Some of these institutions also play a central role in public education and awareness raising by bringing members of the public into contact with plants and animals they may not normally come in contact with. It is estimated that worldwide, over 600 million people visit zoos every year. Ex situ conservation measures should support in-situ conservation measures (in-situ conservation should be the primary objective).
CONSERVATION POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES There are four main policies and objectives of conserving wildlife spp. They are: 1.Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life support system 2.Preservation of genetic diversity 3.Sustainable Utilization of Flora and Fauna spp and the ecosystem 4.Preservation of historical site, land scopes, or geomorphological formation that has cultural scientific or aesthetic value.
METHODS OF CONSERVING RARE FAUNA SPP. These are divided into two A.Saving Endangered wild Fauna spp. From extinction 1.Granting national park or game reserves status to operate 2.Taking most of the animals if not all into captivity for breeding and returning them back to the natural wild habitat 3.Translocating the animals from endangered zone to a place of safety such as the national park, game reserve, wildlife sanctuary and release them. 4.Public education and scientific research into captive breeding.
METHODS OF CONSERVING RARE FAUNA SPP. B.Method relating to preventing fauna spp from spp reaching near extinction 1.Effective and regular public enlightenment programme on values of conserving natural resources rather than emphasizing penalties on poaching. 2.Motivating and increasing the numbers of game reservation staffs for regular patrol and effective surveillance within and outside the protected area. 3.Equipping the staff in the game reserve with good communication gadgets and modern weapons for defence. 4.Imposing stiffer penalty or imprisonment or fines on poachers 5.Check illegal grazing of domestic livestock and poaching in conservation area to reduce lopping of trees, illegal bush fire, curtail diseases transmission from domestic livestock to wildlife stock e.g. the rinderpest disease out break in Yankari National Park Bauchi state was believed to have originated from domestic livestock.
Reasons for Controlling Stocking 1.To maintain the ecological relationship existing between the biotic and a biotic communities. 2.To maintain the production capacity of the habitat without deterioration. 3.To avoid depletion of the food resources.
METHODS OF CONSERVING VEGETATION i.Imposing stiffer penalties on indiscriminate cutting of trees. ii.Enlightening the citizens on the indiscriminate or uncontrolled bush burning iii.Afforestation programme nationwide and if all levels, states, federal, family, world and individual iv.Encourage the use of coal, gas, kerosene, solar energy and other non-wood energy sources v.Provision of subsidies by federal and state government for use of other fuels instead of fuel wood and the adoption of improved and efficient cooking stove.
TRAITS OF VULNERABLE SPECIES Some species of animals have attributes that make them more vulnerable than others some of the major characteristic traits are: Specialization: Not all species are equally vulnerable to being destroyed or wipeout. Those vulnerable tend to be specialists, organisms that live within a narrow range of tolerance. Owen and Charias (1985) categories the feeding habit of animals into two categories. The stenophagous animal, which maintains a specialized, or limited diet and are therefore prone to starvation when their usual foods are scarce. An example is the China’s panda, which eats the leaves of certain bamboo trees. If the bamboo is destroyed the panda will vanish.
TRAITS OF VULNERABLE SPECIES Low Biotic Potential Some animal species are extremely vulnerable to environmental stress such as storms, drought and disease, because of their low biotic potential. The female polar bear for example breeds only once every three years and then gives birth to only two cubs. The female California condor lays only a single egg every other year. The problem is further complicated by the fact that Condors require 6 to 7 years to reach reproductive age (Owen and Charias, 1985). As earlier stated the African elephant have a gestation period of 2 years and requires 14 – 16 years to reach reproductive age (Shortridge, 1934). So also the African rhinoceros, which have a gestation period of about 15 months and requires long period to reach reproductive age (Petrides, 1965 and Walker, 1978). Non Adaptive Behaviour Some animal species posses a characteristic trait, which makes them an easy target for hunter. The endangered drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus) found in some part of Nigeria and Cameroon has certain feeding and other behavioural traits which makes them an easy target for hunters. The Drills unique food, foraging technique of turning up the forest floor and stripping the lowmid level vegetation, provides hunters with signs of track of the drill (Gadsby, 1990; Schafer et al., 1990; Hearn and Berghaier, 1996).
FIRE ECOLOGY This deals with bush burning which occurs worldwide. It affects the life of plants, animal and their habitats Causes of Fire Fire in the savannah is caused by natural phenomena such as lightening, volcanic eruption, sparks from rock boulder andman. It should be noted that even though effects of fires caused by lightning, volcanic eruptions and sparks from rocks may be significant in natural ecosystems, they are relative milder in their destructive effects and spread than the man caused fires. Man causes fire deliberately or accidentally.
Types of Fire There are three main types of fires considering the portion of the vegetation that is consumed by the fire: Ground fires, Surface fires and Crown fires. 1.Ground fires: Ground fires are usually flameless and can penetrate to the Subterranean. They are mostly common in places where the soil is laid with thick layer of leaf litters, dry twigs, branches and organic matter 2.Surface fires: Surface fires feature above the round surface and their flames usually consume the litter, herbs and shrubs. They also scorch the bases of any tree along their route. 3.Crown fires: Crown fires are fires that burn on the crown of trees and shrubs.
Reasons Of Burning 1.Pre-historic men uses fire for warfare and roasting meat 2.For the cultivation of land preparation, settlement and Urbanization 3.Fire smoke is used by hunters to drive away bees for honey collection 4.To drive out wild animals during hunting 5.For religious and social festivals prior to rain season 6.Cattle rearers use fire to keep away tse-tse fly and destroy the vectors
IMPACT OF BUSH BURNING IN THE SAVANNAH Bush burning has several advantage and disadvantages Advantages of Bush Burning in the Savannah 1.Early burning reduces the danger of accidental fire, therefore it protect game reserve, Natural park and forest reserves 2.Burning improve visibility for game view 3.Burning increase the nutritive value of fresh grass. It improves herbage, higher herbage is obtain after burning 4.Burning eliminates undesirable plant 5.Fire facilitate the movement of animals, man and fire fighting Equipments 6.Fire is use in pest control e.g tse-tse fly and tick which transmit human diseases
Disadvantage of Bush Burning 1.Burning injure range plants by removing top shoot. 2.It causes the deterioration of vegetation and destroy the ecosystem or modify them 3.Burning lead to lost of organic Nitrogen, carbonaxious materials and organic matter i.e. there is decrease in the fertility of the soil leading to decrease in output 4.Uncontrolled burning destroy mulching, thereby reduces effective rainfall through increase run off and decrease percolation. 5.Burning removes vegetation leading to drying off of perennial streams and accelerate drought
Effects of Fire on Environmental/Ecological Variables and Processes Fire can affect the following environmental variables either directly or indirectly: Soil: Fire can affect the soil in the following ways 1.Affects numbers and rate of activity of soil organism. 2.Removing or changing rates of soils organic matter formation and accumulation 3.Affecting surface compactness 4.Affecting soil water retention properties. 5.Affecting amounts and availability of essential nutrients 6.Removing soil surface horizons through surface run-off and sheet erosion. Water: Fire can affect the water in the following ways 1.Changing rates of transpiration and evaporation 2.Changing rates of permeability and subsurface flow/ run-off 3.Affecting amount and rate of sedimentation 4.Changing stream and river structure, through bank and surrounding vegetation destruction.
Effects of Fire on Environmental/Ecological Variables and Processes Vegetation: Both directly and directly through the habitat effects mentioned above e.g. 1.Changing direction and speed of vegetation succession 2.Affect plant biomass, structure and shape 3.Affect plant phenology 4.Affect plant quality in terms of nutrient content and availability Animal: Fire can affect the animal in the following ways 1.Changing the shape or amount of cover used by the animal 2.Changes in animal food, plant palatability and availability. 3.Indirectly altering water availability 4. Causing death or injury to young animals and destroys nests and eggs of animal
General Guideline on the Use of Fire as a Management Tool in Protected Areas Do not burn in periods of extreme drought Do not burn in very windy conditions when fire can get out of hand of spread to unscheduled habitat Ensure wildlife will not be trapped by fires Burn small areas at a time- do not start longer fire lines than you can control Cut, rather than burn, where feasible Know the fire ecology and fire history of the area and monitor and record all burns
SOIL EROSION PROBLEM Soil erosion is the systematic removal of soil particles from the earth surface. It is the major environmental degradation occurring mostly when the soil is exposed. 5 major types that has been identify in Nigeria 1.Wind Erosion 2.Coastal Erosion 3.Riverine Erosion 4.Sheet Erosion 5.Gully Erosion
EFFECTS OF EROSION 1.It renders farmland barren. Imo State, Abia, Enugu, Cross river. 2.It can result in desertification 3.Siltation of water courses and breeding site of aquatic animals 4.It causes overall reduction in water quality of creeks, river and coastal areas 5.It removes top soil that is rich in nutrient and organic matter
CONSERVATION TECHNIQUE FOR CRITICAL ECOSYSTEM CONSERVATION TECHNIQUE FOR CRITICAL ECOSYSTEM for example Wetland, hilly land, grazing area and marginal lands 1.Wetland e.g Hadejia – Nguru. Wet land have marshy soil with permanent or seasonal water, its conservation is essential for survival of plants and animals including man. USES OF WET LAND 1.In Alluvia soil - Fadama is very fertile to support Agric through the rain fed cultivation and impacted farming Crops cultivated are Rice, beans, millet, maize and groundnut 2.The large area of the surface water and water flowing in rivers channels recharge the ground water system or else bore-holes in adjacent 150 villages will dry up 3.The surface water support fishing for local consumption and sales 4.The forest near the wet land support fuel wood, plant and vegetative
USES OF WATER BIRDS AND WETLANDS 1.Serve as ecological indicator, wherever they are found in wet land area show that the water is healthy for man 2.The bird dropping enrich the water by supplying necessary nutrient use by aquatic plant to flourish 3.Some of them e.g cattle egret and heron eat finger lings to reduce over stocking of fish 4.Other Birds feed on Insect which may damage crop therefore serve as pest control 5.This migrant bird improve international co-operation between nation,
Problems of Wetland 1.Over-razing by domestic livestock 2.Over-fishing, some even use mosquito net for fishing 3.Tree felling use of tractor to clear land for cultivation 4.The exposed water will dry-up 5.Dry-up of wetland during draught
Conservation Technique for Wet Land 1.Vegetative along water courses must not be cut down, this is to conserve and stabilise water generation 2.Over-grazing must be avoided 3.Stop the use of obnoxious chemicals for killing fish 4.Avoid wild fire or uncontrolled bush burning
Steps in the Process of Developing a Management Plan 1Form the planning team: include a variety of people with expertise in planning, ecology, sociology, economics and various other resource sciences. Also include the protected area authorities and the people who manage the park, as well as those who will be affected by the plan. The team should consult with scientists, experts on tourism, educators, concessionaires and people living in and around the protected area. 2State the objectives of the area: analyse the original reasons for creating the protected area and, if necessary, update the objectives as a function of modern conditions. 3Gather basic background information: this includes legislation, data on biophysical features, cultural resources and socio-economic data. (These and the next points will be expanded below in the section on information required for the management plan). 4Field inventory: consult and update existing data, gather new information and develop the information base to make informed management decisions. 5Assess constraints: limitations of an environmental, economic, political, administrative, or legal, nature should be recognized and analyzed, with an emphasis on realism.
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA CATEGORY 1 STRICT NATURE RESERVES / WILDERNESS AREAS Protected areas managed mainly for science or wilderness protection. These two types of protected area are treated as sub-categories: Category 1a Strict Nature Reserves Areas of land and / or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological features and / or species, available primarily for scientific research and / or environmental monitoring.
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) Category 1b Wilderness areas These are protected areas managed mainly for wilderness protection. They should include a large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and / or sea, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant habitation and should be protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY II NATIONAL PARKS Protected areas managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation. These are natural areas of land and / or sea, designated to: a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; b) exclude exploitation or occupation likely to degrade the area; and c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, education, recreational and visitor uses, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible.
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY III NATURAL MONUMENTS Protected areas managed mainly for conservation of specific natural features. These are areas containing one, or more, specific natural or natural / cultural features which are of outstanding or unique value because of their inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities,or cultural significance. CATEGORY IV HABITAT / SPECIES MANAGEMENT AREAS Areas of land and / or sea where active management interventions are undertaken so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and / or to meet the requirements of specific species.
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd) CATEGORY V PROTECTED LANDSCAPES / SEASCAPES Protected areas managed mainly for landscape / seascape conservation and recreation. They consist of areas of land, sometimes with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced a landscape of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and / or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity. Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area. CATEGORY VI MANAGED RESOURCE PROTECTED AREAS Protected areas managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. They are areas containing predominantly unmodified natural systems, managed to ensure long term protection and maintenance of biological diversity, while providing at the same time a sustainable flow of natural products and services to meet community needs.
Development of Protected Area Buffer Zones Definition of Buffer zone Buffer zone can be defined as an area adjacent to protected areas, on which land use is partially restricted to give an added layer of protection to the protected area itself while providing valued benefits to neighbouring rural communities. Buffer zones may serve two main functions:
FUNCTION OF BUFFER ZONE Extension Buffering, which in effect extends the area of those habitats contained within the protected area into the buffer zone, thus allowing larger total breeding populations of plants and animal species than could survive within the reserve alone. Example of such buffering can include selectively logged production forests, hunting areas, natural forests used by villagers for fire-wood collection, unused wilderness and grazing pastures.
FUNCTION OF BUFFER ZONE Socio-Buffering, where wildlife use of the buffer zone is of secondary importance and management is aimed primarily at providing products of use or value (cash crops) to local people; but such land use should not conflict with the objective of the protected area itself. This generally involves planting species that are unattractive as habitats for local wildlife or allowing a controlled harvest of wildlife.
Buffer Zone Requirements and Restrictions In determining the types and extent of buffer zones needed, the following factors should be considered: Needs of threatened wildlife species for use of additional habitat outside the reserve boundaries. Knowledge of the size and habits of the species will give some indication of the extent of an adequate buffer zone. The need for the buffer zone to serve other protective functions, such as soil and water conservation or fire-break protection. The need to contain wildlife species likely to move out of the reserve. The reasonable needs of local people for land, forest products, grazing areas or meat. The amount of land available for use, whether it is currently under natural or other vegetation, and whether it is vacant or being used. The suitability of possible buffer crops for the particular land type and climatic conditions and the interests of local wildlife. For instance, bananas or oil palms should not be planted if the buffer zone is next to an elephant reserve, and maize would be unsuitable near macaques or baboons.
Types of Buffer Zones The main types of buffer zone for protected areas include 1. Traditional Use Zones inside Protected Areas: There are situations when no suitable land exists outside reserves for buffer zone establishment and it is preferable to permit collection of certain natural products from some part of the reserve or at certain times rather than have to exercise valuable lands as buffers.
Types of Buffer Zones 2. Forest Buffers. These include fuel-wood or timber forests outside protected area boundaries but on public land. These may be natural forests, enriched secondary forest or even plantations where the emphasis is on maximizing sustained yield for local village use, while maintaining good soil and water protection. The encouragement of plantation forests in buffer zones is probably the single most effective resource management strategy for ensuring long-term integrity of protected areas themselves 3. Economic Buffers. Sometimes economic buffering is needed to reduce the needs of villagers to take resources from protected areas. This could take the form of special agricultural, social or communication assistance in lieu of, or as well as provision of productive buffer lands. Other examples include cash tree plantations, and wildlife cropping outside protected area boundaries, where the emphasis is on maximizing cash returns to benefit villagers.
Types of Buffer Zones 4. Physical Buffers. Where no land is available for buffer zone development the boundary itself must serve as a buffer and there is sometimes a need for physical barriers such as fences, ditches, canals, walls or spiny hedges. These help discourage wildlife from leaving the reserve and deter people and domestic stock from entering. In some cases all that my be required is a clearly visible boundary such as a cut trace line or single row or thin belt of distinctive tree (bright leaves or flowers) as a living boundary.
Selection of Crop for Buffer Zones The merits of various plantation types as buffer zones and their attraction for wildlife have been identified below 1. Natural forest, disturbed forest and secondary forest provide additional habitat for wildlife species and excellent protection of soil. 2. Fast growing firewood plantations (various species are of some use to wildlife species and provide good soil protection. This is most suitable in areas where land is limited and where the demand for firewood is pressing. Coppiceable species should be selected. 3. Timber plantations (various species) give good to excellent soil protection i.e. reforesting steep slopes. 4. Mixed plantations providing firewood, poles and timber are of some use to use to wildlife and give good protection. 5. Fruit plantations protect the soil and provide cash and food, but problems may arise with certain wild species e.g. monkeys or bats raiding the crops. 6. Cinnamon provides cash and fire wood but is of no use to wildlife; soil protection is good although the tree have to be cut every few years.