Presentation on theme: "Clauses and Phrases The keys for unlocking compound / complex sentences By AJ Brown."— Presentation transcript:
Clauses and Phrases The keys for unlocking compound / complex sentences By AJ Brown
A clause is a group of words WITH a subject/verb pair. It can be a simple sentence. AJ and her sister lived in Spain. It is sunny. It can be one half of a compound sentence. AJ lived in Spain, and she lived in Japan. It is sunny, but it is not warm. It can be one part of a complex sentence. AJ lived in Spain when she was 25. Although it is sunny, it is not warm.
There are two kinds of clauses: Clause #1 = independent or main clause Can be a simple sentence AJ and her sister lived in Spain. Can be one clause of a compound sentence AJ lived in Spain, so she speaks Spanish. Can be the main clause of a complex sentence AJ lived in Spain when she was 25.
Clause #2 = dependent or time clause Cannot be a simple sentence When AJ and her sister lived in Spain. Cannot be one clause of a compound sentence When AJ lived in Spain, so she speaks Spanish. Can be the dependent clause of a complex sentence AJ lived in Spain when she was 25. Wrong!!! Correct!!!
Remember… An independent clause can be in all three types of sentences in English. A dependent clause can ONLY be in complex sentences. Also, dependent clauses ALWAYS begin with a subordinating conjunction (if, when, although, that, etc.)
Rule to remember about dependent clauses: They are never a full sentence. T hey must also have an independent (main) clause Because I am hungry. I am eating because I am hungry. If I study a lot. My English will improve if I study a lot. When I was a child. I learned to ski when I was a child. wrong
Practice – say dependent or independent Before I came to the U.S. I came to the U.S. When I was a child. I was a child. My sister and I stayed home. If my sister and I stayed home. D I D I I D
A phrase is a group of words WITHOUT a subject/verb pair.
The most common phrase is a prepositional phrase (prep + noun object) of location in my country on the desk at the store between the houses of direction from my house to the library into the soup of time in an hour after two weeks for ten minutes during the day A prepositional phrase CANNOT be the subject
Another common phrase is a noun phrase Singular noun a country an egg the moon Adjective + noun clever students the highest score the hot soup Gerund + object learning to ski listening to music memorizing grammar rules Nouns joined by coordinators Stephanie and AJ coffee or tea poor but happy A noun phrase CAN be the subject
Practice – say clause or phrase In the capital of my country. Between you and me. I was a child. If I can. My sister and her husband Since I was a child. phrase clause phrase clause
Comma rules for clauses Rule #1 = compound sentences Always write a comma before the conjunction I live in Portland, and I work in Beaverton. He is sleeping right now, but he’ll call you later. I lost my purse, so I called the police. Do not write a comma between two words or phrases I like ice cream and candy. The ball went behind the sofa and under the desk. She is the top student and my best friend.
Rule #2 = complex sentences YES! write a comma if the dependent clause is 1 st. Although I live in Portland, I work in Beaverton. Because he is sleeping right now, he’ll call you later. Since I lost my purse, I called the police. NO! do not write a comma if the dependent clause is 2 nd. I work in Beaverton although I work in Portland. He’ll call you later because he is sleeping right now. I called the police since I lost my purse.
Practice Write a DC in front of the dependent clauses, an IC in front of the independent clauses, and a P in front of the phrases. The student next to Abdul. The car stopped. When he was a small boy. We went to see a movie. In the morning or in the afternoon. The cats were lying in the sun. Since the dawn of time. From the easily missed corner. As soon as the alarm went off. The music from the southern part of my country. P P P P P P P P P P IC DC IC