Presentation on theme: "TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES"— Presentation transcript:
1 TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEES Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)TRAINING & DEVELOPING EMPLOYEESEmployees Orientation:A Procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm.At a minimum, new employees usually receive either printed or internet-based employee handbooks. These explain things like working hours, performance reviews, getting on the payroll, and vacations .
2 Employees Orientation. . . Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Employees Orientation. . .A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees:Make them feel welcome and at ease.Help them understand the organization in a broad sense.Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior.Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.
3 NEW EMPLOYEES DEPARTMENTAL ORIENTATION CHECKLIST Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)NEW EMPLOYEES DEPARTMENTAL ORIENTATION CHECKLIST1. Human Resources InformationDepartmental Attendance Procedures and UCSD Healthcare Work Time & Attendance PolicyJob Description ReviewAnnual Performance Evaluation and Peer Feedback ProcessProbationary Period InformationAppearance/Dress Code RequirementsAnnual TB ScreeningLicense and/or certification Renewals
4 CHECKLIST (Contd…) Department Information Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)CHECKLIST (Contd…)Department InformationOrganizational Structure-Department Core Values OrientationDepartment/Unit Area Specific Policies & ProceduresCustomer Service PracticesCQI Effort and ProjectsTour and Floor PlanEquipment/SuppliesKeys issuedRadio Pager issuedOther______________Mail and Recharge codes
5 CHECKLIST (Contd…) Safety Information Departmental Safety Plan Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)CHECKLIST (Contd…)Safety InformationDepartmental Safety PlanEmployee Safety/Injury Reporting ProceduresHazard CommunicationInfection Control/Sharps DisposalAttendance at annual Safety Fair (mandatory)
6 CHECKLIST (Contd…) Facilities Information Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)CHECKLIST (Contd…)Facilities InformationOrganizational Structure-Department Core Values OrientationDepartment/Unit Area Specific Policies & ProceduresCustomer Service PracticesCQI Effort and ProjectsTour and Floor PlanBedHeadwallBathroomNurse Call System
7 CHECKLIST (Contd…) 5. Security Information Code Triage Assignment Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)CHECKLIST (Contd…)5. Security InformationCode Triage AssignmentCode Blue AssignmentCode Red – Evacuation ProcedureCode 10 – Bomb Threat ProcedureDepartmental Security MeasuresUCSD Emergency Number 6111 or 911Tour and Floor PlanBedHeadwallBathroomNurse Call System
8 The Training Process Training The strategic context of training Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)The Training ProcessTrainingThe process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs.The strategic context of trainingPerformance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals.
9 The Training & Development Process Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)The Training & Development ProcessNeeds analysisIdentify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives.Instructional designProduce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities.ValidationPresenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience.Implement the programActually training the targeted employee group.EvaluationAssesses the program’s successes or failures.
10 Make Learning Meaningful Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Make Learning MeaningfulIt is usually easier for trainees to understand and remember material that is meaningful. Therefore:At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eyes of the material to be presented. Knowing the overall picture facilitates learning.Use a variety of familiar examples.Organize the information so you can present it logically, and in meaningful units.Use terms and concepts that are already familiar to trainees.Use as many visual aids as possible.
11 Make Skills Transfer Easy Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Make Skills Transfer EasyMaximize the similarity between the training situation and the work situation.Provide adequate practice.Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or step in the process.Direct the trainee’s attention to important aspects of the job. For example, if you're training customer service representatives how to handle incoming calls, first explain the different types of calls they will encounter and how to recognize such calls.
12 Make Skills Transfer Easy (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Make Skills Transfer Easy (Contd…)5. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information. For example, trainees learning to become first-line supervisor often face stressful conditions, high workload, and difficult subordinates back on the job. Studies suggest you can reduce the negative impact of such events by letting trainees know they might happen.
13 Motivate the Learner Here are some ways to motivate the trainee. Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Motivate the LearnerHere are some ways to motivate the trainee.People learn best by doing. Try to provide as much realistic practice as possible.Trainees learn best when the trainers immediately reinforce correct responses, perhaps with a quick “well done”.Trainees learn best at their own pace. If possible, let them pace themselves.Create a perceived training need in the trainees’ minds. In one study, pilot who had experienced pertaining accident-related events subsequently learned more from an accident-reduction training program than did those experiencing fewer such events
14 Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Motivate the Learner…You could illustrate the need for the training by showing videos of simulated accidents. Similarly, “before the training, managers need to sit down and talk with the trainee about why they are enrolled in the class, what they are expected to learn and how they can use it on the job.The schedule is important too: The learning curve goes down late in the day, so that “full day training is not as effective as half the day or three-fourths of the day”.Negligent trainingA situation where an employer fails to train adequately and the employee subsequently harms a third party.
15 Analyzing Training Needs Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Analyzing Training NeedsTask analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training NeedsA detailed study of a job to identify the specific skills required.Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training NeedsVerifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employees).
16 Training Methods On the job Training (OJT) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Training MethodsOn the job Training (OJT)Training a person to learn a job while working at it.Here are some steps to help ensure OJT success.Step 1: Prepare the LearnerPut the learner at ease–relieve the tensionExplain why he or she is being taughtCreate interest, encourage questions, find out what the learner already knows about this or other jobs.Explain the whole job and relate it to some job the worker already knows.Place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible.Familiarize the worker with equipment, materials, tools, and trade terms.
17 On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…)Step 2: Present the OperationExplain quantity and quality requirements.Go through the job at the normal work pace.Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step. Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are likely to be made.Again go through the job at a slow pace several times; explain the key points.Have the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow pace.
18 On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…)Step 3: Do a TryoutHave the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step to you. Correct mistakes and, if necessary, do some of the complicated steps the first few times.Run the job at the normal pace.Have the learner do the job, gradually building up skill and speed.As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but don’t abandon him or her.
19 On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)On the job Training (OJT) (Contd…)Step 4: Follow upDesignate to whom the learner should go for help.Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against quality and quantity standards.Correct faulty work patterns before they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior.Compliment good work; encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet the quality and quantity standards.
20 Apprenticeship Training Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Apprenticeship TrainingA structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.Job Instructions Training (JIT)Listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step - by – step training for employees.Programmed LearningA systematic method for teaching job skills involving presenting questions or facts, allowing the person to respond, & giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answer.
21 Literacy Training Techniques Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Literacy Training TechniquesAudiovisual – Based TrainingTechniques like films, Power Points, videoconferencing, audiotapes, & videotapes can be very effective & are widely used.Simulated TrainingTraining employees on special off-the-job equipment, as in airplane pilot training. So training costs and hazards can be reduced.
22 Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS)Sets of computerized tools & displays that automate training, documentation, & phone support, integrate this automation into applications, & provide support that’s faster; cheaper; and more effective than traditional methods.Job AidJob aid Is a set of instructions diagrams, or similar methods available at the job site to guide the workerDiversity TrainingWith an increasingly diverse workforce, more firms are implementing diversity training programs.
23 Training Employees to Please customers Teamwork training Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Training Employees to Please customersTeamwork trainingLifelong LearningProviding continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced decision-making techniques throughout the employees’ career
24 Managerial Development and Training Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Managerial Development and TrainingManagement DevelopmentAny attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills.Succession PlanningA processes through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filed.
25 Managerial On – the – Job Training Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Managerial On – the – Job TrainingJob RotationA management training technique that involves moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points.Action learningA training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
26 Off – The Job Management T & D Techniques Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Off – The Job Management T & D TechniquesCase study methodA development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve.Management gameA development technique in which teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regards realistic but simulated situations.Role playingA training technique in which trainees act out parts in a realistic management situation.
27 Off – The Job Management T & D Techniques (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Off – The Job Management T & D Techniques (Contd…)Behavior modelingA training technique in which trainers are first shown good management techniques in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated situation and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisor.In-house development centreA company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills.
28 Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques (cont’d) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Off-the-Job Management Training and Development Techniques (cont’d)Executive coachesAn outside consultant who questions the executive’s boss, peers, subordinates, and (sometimes) family in order to identify the executive’s strengths and weaknesses.Counsels the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses.
29 Managing Strategic Organizational Renewal Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Managing Strategic Organizational RenewalStrategic ChangeA change in a company’s strategy, mission, and vision.Cultural ChangeA change in a company’s shared values and aims.Structural ChangeThe reorganizing or redesigning of an organization’s departmentalization, coordination, span of control, reporting relationships, or decision-making process.Technological changeModifications to the work methods an organization uses to accomplish its tasks.
30 Overcoming Resistance To Change Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Overcoming Resistance To ChangeWhat causes resistance?All behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds of forces—those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change.Lewin’s Change ProcessUnfreezing: reducing the forces striving to maintain the status quo.Moving: developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through structural changes.Refreezing: reinforcing the changes.
31 Overcoming Resistance to Change… Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Overcoming Resistance to Change…Change initiativesPolitical campaign: creating a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative.Marketing campaign: tapping into employees’ thoughts and feelings and also effectively communicating messages about the prospective program’s theme and benefits.Military campaign: Deploying executives’ scarce resources of attention and time to actually carry out the change.
32 A 10-step change Process How to Lead the Change: Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)How to Lead the Change:A 10-step change ProcessEstablish a sense of urgency. Once they become aware of the need to change, most leaders start by creating a sense of urgency.Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems.Create a guiding-coalition partnership.Develop a shared vision
33 A 10-step change Process (Contd…) Chapter 9HRM (Gary Dessler)A 10-step change Process (Contd…)Communicate the Vision.a. Keep it simple.b. Use multiple forums.c. Use repetition.d. Lead by example.Help employees to make the change. It’s futile to communicate your vision and to have employees want to make it a reality.Generate short-term wins.Consolidate gains and produce more change.Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company’s culture.Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required.
34 Organizational Development (OD) Chapter 9HRM (Gary Dessler)Organizational Development (OD)A special approach to organizational change in which employees themselves formulate & implement the change that’s required.Usually involves action research.Applies behavioral science knowledge.Changes the attitudes, values, and beliefs of employees.Changes the organization in a particular direction.
35 Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Characteristics Of ODIt usually involves action research, which means collecting data about a group, department, or organization and then feeding the information back to the employees so they can analyze it and develop hypotheses about what the problems might be.It applies behavioral science knowledge to improve the organization’s effectiveness.
36 Characteristics Of OD (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Characteristics Of OD (Contd…)It changes the attitudes, values and beliefs of employees so that the employees themselves can identify and implement the technical, procedural, structural, or other changes needed to improve the company’s functioning.It changes the organization in a particular direction—toward improved problem solving, responsiveness, quality of work, and effectiveness.
37 OD Interventions or Techniques Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)OD Interventions or TechniquesHuman Process ApplicationsTechnostructural InterventionsHRM ApplicationsStrategic OD Applications
38 Human Process Applications Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Human Process ApplicationsHuman Process OD techniques generally aim first at improving human relation skills.Sensitivity trainingA method for increasing employees’ insights into their own behavior by candid discussions in groups led by special trainers.Team buildingA method for clarifying and bringing into the open intergroup misconceptions and problems so that they can be resolved.
39 Human Process Applications (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Human Process Applications (Contd…)Confrontation meetingsA method for clarifying and bringing into the open intergroup misconceptions and problems so that they can be resolved.Survey researchA method that involves surveying employee’s attitudes and providing feedback to the work groups as a basis for problem analysis and action planning.
40 Technostructural Interventions Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Technostructural InterventionsOD practitioners are also increasingly involved in changing firm’s structures, methods, and job designs using an assortment of Technostructural interventions.These interventions generally focus directly on improving productivity and efficiency.In a formal structural change program, the employees collect data on the company’s existing organizational structure; they then jointly redesign and implement a new one.
41 Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)HRM ApplicationsOD practitioners increasingly use action research to enable employees to analyze and change their firm’s personnel practices.Targets of change might include the performance appraisal and reward systems, as well as installing diversity programs.
42 Strategic OD Applications Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Strategic OD ApplicationsStrategic interventions are organization wide OD programs aimed at achieving a fit among a firm’s strategy, structure, culture, and external environment.
43 Strategic OD Applications (Contd…) Chapter 8HRM (Gary Dessler)Strategic OD Applications (Contd…)Integrated strategic management is one example of how to use OD to create or change a strategy. It consists of four steps:Managers and employees analyze current strategy and organizational design.Choose a desired strategy and organizational design.Design a strategic change plan— “an action plan for moving the organization from its current strategy and organizational design to the desired future strategy and design.Finally implement the strategic change plan, and measure and review the results to ensure that they are proceeding as planned.