2 What is Motherboard?the most important component in any personal computercontains almost every important elements of the computerIBM refers to is as “system Board” or “ Planner Board”other manufacturer refer to this as the “ Logic Board”the main circuit board inside the PC which holds the processor, memory and expansion slots and connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC.made up of a chipset(known as the “glue logic”), some code in ROM and the various interconnections or buses.
3 Motherboard Components • Expansion slots • CPU(Main Processor) • Coprocessor • Memory • BIOS and • Support circuits of chipset for interrupt, DMA etc.
5 What is expansion slot?The expansion slots are long thin connectors on the motherboard, near the backside of the computer. Various expansion cards are connected to the motherboards through data, address and control lines/buses on these slots. One can connect various expansion cards such as display card, hard drive controller, sound card, network card, modem card etc. on these slots. When an adapter card is connected to the expansion slot, it is actually connected to the data, address and control bus on the motherboard.
7 The CPUThe main component of any motherboard is the main processor chip which controls all the inner functions of the system. The CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT(CPU) functions as the brain of every PC. It is usually inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard as many other chips are normally done, this makes its replacement, in case of any problem, very easy.
9 CPU Socketa mechanical component that provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB). This allows the CPU to be replaced without soldering.Types:PGA – Pin Grid Array ; Protruding PinsLGA – Land Grid Array ; Balls Grid Array
11 Memorythe place where computer stores the program and data that help the program in carrying out its operations.used by computers to run its operating system in any application that you start and also responsible in loading a system.
12 Types of Memory RAM memory(Random Access Memory) is a read/write type of memory which is used by the processor to keep program, data and intermediate results during program executions. It is VOLATILE type of memory, which lose its content when the power supply is switched off.
13 RAM and there typesSIMMS: 72-pin SIMM (4-1/4”) 30-pin SIM (3-1/2”) DIMM: Pins: 168 – pin,184 – pin, 240 – pin DDR1 –2.4 or 2.5 v DDR2 – 1.8 V DDR3 – 1.5 V
17 Types of MemoryThe physical installation of RAM memory on the motherboard can take place in various ways.DIP(dual In-line Pin) memory chips were used on initial motherboards.Later SIMM ( single inline memory modules) became common.Currently DIMM(dual inline memory modules) are most common memory module.
18 Types of Memory ROM (Read Only Memory) as its name suggest is a read only type of memory it cannot be written.a Non-Volatile type of memory, meaning it does not lose its content when the power supply to it is switched off.A motherboard normally contains one or more of these ROM chips.
20 BIOS BIOS -Basic Input Output System. A chip w/c directs the I/O operations of all the devices in or attached to the systemAll Peripherals are instructed by BIOSHolds the configuration, loading the operating system, detects also the devices, and monitors the PC temperature.Communication between the processor and memory
21 BIOS-Primary functions Prepares the machine so other software programs stored on various media (such as hard drives, floppies, and CD’s) can load, execute, and assume control of the computer.
22 CMOSAlternatively referred to as a Real-Time Clock (RTC), Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM) or CMOS RAMshort for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor.an on-board semiconductor chip powered by a CMOS battery inside computers
23 CMOS BatteryContains the information about the system configuration (hard disk types, date and time, and the order in w/c the computer will look for bootable disk). The CMOS battery allows the CMOS to pressure these settings.Preserves the settings of theBIOS
24 CMOS Socket ConnectorThis houses the CMOS battery
25 Chipseta group of integrated circuits, or chips, that are designed to work together, and are usually marketed as a single product.There are two Chipset in a Motherboard:Northbridge ChipsetSouthbridge Chipset
26 North Bridge Chipset Also known as the I/O controller Hub (ICH) the chip that controls all of the computers I/O functions, such as USB , audio, serial, the system BIOS , the ISA bus, and the IDE channels.
27 South Bridge Chipset Also known as “Memory Controller hub”. Typically handles communications between the CPU, RAM, AGP.Always closer to CPU w/ heat sinkalso one of the responsible in processing data.
29 How does it work?The chipset is the "glue" that connects the microprocessor to the rest of the motherboard and therefore to the rest of the computer. All of the various components of the computer communicate with the CPU through the chipset.
30 How does it work?The Northbridge connects directly to the processor via the front side bus (FSB). A memory controller is located on the Northbridge, which gives the CPU fast access to the memory. The Northbridge also connects to the AGP or PCI Express bus and to the memory itself.
31 How does it work?The Southbridge is slower than the Northbridge, and information from the CPU has to go through the Northbridge before reaching the Southbridge. Other busses connect the Southbridge to the PCI bus, the USB ports and the IDE or SATA hard disk connections.
32 How does it work?Chipset selection and CPU selection go hand in hand, because manufacturers optimize chipsets to work with specific CPUs. The chipset is an integrated part of the motherboard, so it cannot be removed or upgraded. This means that not only must the motherboard's socket fit the CPU, the motherboard's chipset must work optimally with the CPU.
33 SATA(Serial ATA )a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives.designed to replace the older AT Attachment standard offering several advantages over the older interface:reduced cable size and cost (7 conductors instead of 40),native hot swapping,faster data transfer through higher signalling rates,more efficient transfer through an (optional) I/O queuing protocol.
40 Post Speaker POST(Power-On-Self-Test) This produce audible beep indicating an error, warning, or system ok.
41 CD – in Header Connection where the CD drive is plugged in Also transfer power to the CD drive such as the audit of the CD ROMAllows the computer to recognized the drive in order to operate correctly
45 Floppy Disk HeaderFloppy Disk Drive (FDD) headers are sockets on a motherboard into which floppy disk drive cables are plugged. Some motherboards have more than one FDD header; many newer motherboards omit them entirely, as floppy disks have become obsolete.
46 TERMS DDR – Double Data Rate AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port PCI - Peripheral Component InterconnectDIP-dual in-line packageSIMM-single in-line memory moduleDIMM-dual in-line memory moduleIDE - Integrated Drive ElectronicsISA - Industry Standard ArchitectureATX - Advanced Technology eXtended