3 Phonetics Definition: The scientific study of speech. Speech? Represents words and other units of language.There are some sounds we can identify easily enough and some sounds are difficult. (E.g non-pulmonic sounds)Scientific?To measure as accurately as possible and give an agreed terminology
6 Phonetics Concerned with: The characteristics of sounds that occur in languageInterested in:1. Description of sounds2. Classification of sounds; [p] voiceless, bilabial, stop
7 Phonetics 3. Transcription of words: To write words according to how you hear them.It is a method of writing down speech sounds in a systematic and consistent way
8 Difficulties from learning a new language After puberty it is difficult to learn a new language, so we have to learn it at an early age.There will be difficulties arising from second language interference.English?(R.P) received pronunciation, which is the pronunciation of the educated speakers of the English language.
9 Difference between spelling and sound 1. Different letters may represent a single sound:[ too, two, threw, shoe]2. A single letter may represent different sounds:[dad, father, call, many]3. A combination of letters may represent a single sound:[shoot, character, theater, physics]
10 continue 4. Some letters are silent: [knife, whole, lamb, island, castle]5. Some sound are not represented in the spelling:[cute]
11 Relationship between spelling and pronunciation C pronounced /s/ when followed by the letters [e-i- y]:[cell, city, cycle]C pronounced /k/ when followed by the vowel [o-a- u]:[cold, cab, cub]G pronounced / / when followed by [e-y]:[gem, gym]
12 Continue (vowels) at/ ate At: short vowel sound Ate: long vowel sound rid/ ridenot/ note* If an a is followed by an e, the a becomes a long vowel sound
13 Common mistakes 1. Substituting one consonant sound for another: [please-blease] [pin- bin]2. Delete consonants:[price- pice]3. Change the length of vowel:[this- these]
14 continue 4. Substituting one vowel sound for another: [cot-cut] 5. Misplacing primary stress:[E’vent- e ‘VENT]
15 TranscriptionPhonetic transcription is completely separate from spelling.Only symbolize the phonemes.Use broad transcription.E.g hat / hæt/
19 Transcription (continue) Homographs: same spelling, different pronunciation.Lead (n.) /led/Lead (v.) /liːd/Homophones: words pronounced identically same sound, different spelling, same pronunciation.Rain /reɪn / I /aɪ /Rein /reɪn / eye /aɪ /end
23 Vocal cordsThe larynx contains two small bands of elastic tissue, which can be thought of as flat strips of rubber, lying opposite of each other across the air passage.
24 Vocal cordsThe inner edges of the vocal cords can be moved towards each other so that they meet and completely cover the top of the wind – pipe, or they can be drawn apart so that there is a gap between them (known as the glottis)
25 Vocal Cords Glottal Stop: The holding back of compressed air when the vocal cords are held tightly together filled by a sudden burst of air.E.g Hawaii(/həwaɪʔi:/)The [t] in American English in words like ‘button’Arabic
26 Voiced &Voiceless Sounds Vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass freely between them and there is no vibrationVoiced:Rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords.If you put a finger in each ear and say “zzzzz” you can feel the vibrations.If you put a finger in each ear and say “sssss” you will not feel any vibration.When you whisper, you are actually making all the speech sounds voiceless
27 The Vocal CordsGlottal StopVibrate (voiced)Not Vibrate (voiceless)
29 The Palate - forms the roof of the mouth. - Separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity.
30 The Palate The soft palate can move; It can be raised to touch the back wall of the pharynx;This sops air from going to the nasal cavity and forces it to go into the mouth only.
31 The PalateWhen the soft palate or velum is raised to block the passage of air stream through the nose and forced through the mouth, sounds produced this way are called oral.If you force the air out of the nose by closing your lips or blocking the oral passage, sounds produced this way are called nasal.
32 The PalateThe alveolar ridge: is the part of the gums immediately behind the upper front teeth.The hard palate: is the highest part of the palate, between the alveolar ridge and the soft palate.
33 The TeethThe lower front teeth are not important in speech except certain sounds will be difficult to make e.g /s/ and /z/.Dental fricatives are examples of sounds produced using the upper teeth.
34 The TongueThe tongue is the most important organ because it’s the most movable organ.The back of the tongue lies under the soft palate when the tongue is at rest; the front lies under the hard palate, the tip and the blade lie under the alveolar ridge.
36 /s/ and /l//s/The sides of the tongue are pressed firmly against the side of the palate, so that the breath is forced to pass down the narrow central passage between the blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge./l/The center of the mouth is blocked by the tip and blade of the tongue pressed firmly against the alveolar ridge and the air passes instead between the sides of the tongue and the sides of the palate.
37 Examples /s/ we feel the blade of the tongue. /j/ we feel the center of the tongue moving./k/ we feel the back of the tongue moving.
38 The Lips Very easy to make different position for lips. 1. completely closed: bilabials [p, b, m]2. moving lower lip: /f/ (lip – teeth position)3. rounded lips: /w/
39 The English and lips Their lips are never very far apart. They do not take very rounded shapes.They are rarely spread very much.They are almost never pushed forward or protruded.End