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Civil Engineering is Everywhere

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Engineering is Everywhere"— Presentation transcript:


2 Civil Engineering is Everywhere
Branches of Civil Engineering. Surveying Transportation Engg Geotechnical or Soil Mechanics Environmental Engg Structural Engg Quantity Surveying Construction Management and Project Management Irrigation Fluid Mechanics Town Planning Remote Sensing

3 BRANCHES OF CIVIL Housing – 1) Surveying 2) Construction Management 3) Quantity Surveying 4) Structural Engg 5) Geotechnical and Foundation Engg 6) Earthquake Engg 7) Town Planning 8) Remote Sensing Water - 1) Irrigation Engg 2) Fluid Mechanics 3) Environmental Engg Transportation – 1) Roadways 2 ) Railways 3) Airways 4) Waterways


5 Surveying Def Surveying:- * Relative Point * Prepare Maps
* Linear and Angular Measurements * Leveling Classification of Surveying- * Plane Surveying * Geodetic Surveying Types of Surveying - * Based on Purpose * Based on Instruments Principals of Surveying – Work from Whole to part To Locate a pt by atleast 2 independent measurements.

6 TYPES – Based on Purpose – 1) Topographic Surveying – Natural and Artificial Features like hills, Lakes, Roads, Villages, Railway tracks……. Etc. 2) Cadcestral Surveying – Boundaries of Fields, Houses, Plots… 3) City Survey – boundaries of plots, watersupply, sanitary….. 4) Route Surveying - …………… 5) Mine Surveying – Underground material….. 6) Hydrographic Surveying – Nature of Bed Surface. Based on Instruments – 1) Chain Survey 2) Compass Survey 3) Chain and Compass Survey 4) Theodolite Survey 5) Tachometric Surveying 6) Plane Table Surveying 7) Electronic Distance Meter Surveying.


8 Applications Of Surveying 1) Plans and Maps 2) Measure Area of Plot or Land 3) Horizontal and vertical Measurements 4) CONTOUR Maps 5) Selection of Suitable site 6) Quantity of Earth Work 7) Capacity of Reservoir…….. And many more…….

9 Structural Engg. Structural engineers design steel, concrete, timber framed structures such as: Tall buildings, towers Bridges Chimneys, Tanks Retaining walls, foundations Stadiums …….. Etc… Calculates LOAD on Structure

10 TYPES OF LOADS Dead Load Live Load Wind Load Earthquake Load.

11 Classification of STRUCTURES
RCC Steel Structure (HW…) Application of Structural Engineering??????

12 Environmental Engineering.
It’s also “PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING” It’s the branch which deals with Water Supply Engg Sanitary System Engg Environmental Pollution

13 Applications of Environmental Engg
Testing Quality of Water for diff. purposes. Design – Water Treatment Plant Design – Sewage Treatment Plant Study Population and design proposed projects. Control and Reduce POLLUTION Dispose Waste….etc..

14 Transportation Transportation Engineers design and analyze Roadways
Railways Airports Waterways Parking Lots Traffic Control Signal Systems.

15 ROADWAYS Classification of Roadways – According to IRC
Expressway National Highway (NH) State Highway (SH) Major District Road (MDR) Village Road (VR) According to Material used for Construction Bituminous Road or Tar Road Concrete Road Water Bound Macadem Road (WBM) Earth Work.

16 Classification according to IRC
Expressway – (HW) ??????? National Highway – Run through LENGTH and WIDTH of Country Connects Capitals 2 Lane Width – 7 to 15 m Fast and Heavy Loaded traffic. State Highway – Connects Major Cities to NH 2 lane or some times 1 Width – 7 to 10 m Used for fast Traffic

17 Major District Road – - Connecting District places to taluka, main cities, major market places in cities - Width 5 to 8 m - Use of Moderate Traffic Village Roads Connects Village to taluka, village to nearest railway station, village to village… - EARTH ROAD or KUTCHA ROAD - Light and Slow moving Vehicles - (Bullock Cart Road)

18 Home Work -------- Write min 3 Examples of each type of Roadways according to IRC…

19 Classification based on Material

20 Classification based on Material
Bituminous Road or TAR Road Tar is a Binding Material Easily Repaired and Maintained Due to Bitumen Layer Wearing surface is small Life is Short

21 Concrete Road - Wearing surface is Cement Concrete - Rigid Pavement - Life is High as strength is high. - Difficult to repair and Maintain - HIGH COST.

22 Water Bound Macadam Road -
Base Course of Bitumen or Concrete Constructed with 2 to 3 layers of aggregates and soil material Normally provided on VILLAGE ROAD Earth Road – Earth material is main Constituent of the road Kutcha road (Loacally available material) Formed by trace passers or bullock carts….


24 RAILWAYS It is also called as ‘ PERMAENT WAY’
Cross Section of Permanent Way.


26 Gauge: -The Clear Distance between the inner faces of Rails
Indian Railways are divided in 3 types based on Gauge Broad Gauge m Meter Gauge m Narrow Gauge m I.R. divided in Different 8 Zones 1) Northern 5) Western 2) Central 6) North Eastern 3) Southern 7) South Central 4) Eastern 8) South Eastern

27 HOME WORK….. 1) Short Note on Construction of Permanent way? 2) Comparison between ROADWAYS and RAILWAYS…… (4 mrks)

28 Geotechnical OR Soil Mechanics
Geotechnical engineering is essential for a safe and secure structure. Deals with SOIL Study Behavior of Soil under applied LOAD TESTS – Trials Pits Plate Load Test


30 Application of Geotechnical Engg.
Properties of Soil Classification of Soil Bearing Capacity of Soil Design of Earth Dam EG?????? Study of different SOIL STRATA Capability of SUB- GRADE of road. Design of FOUNDATION in any type of soil Analyze the WATER SEEPAGE for Dams

31 Quantity Surveying Quantity Surveying ESTIMATE VALUATION
Deals with measuring various Quantities and Probable cost of Construction. CLASSICATION:- Quantity Surveying ESTIMATE VALUATION

32 Estimation – To find/ Calculate the ‘approximate cost’ of Construction.
Valuation – Determining the ‘PRESENT VALUE’ of existing property. (HOME WORK…….) Difference between Estimation and Valuation (Min 5 Pts.) Applications of Q.S ???? (6 pts.)

33 Fluid Mechanics or Hydraulics
Water management involves the use of hydraulic principles to design: Water Retaining Structures like DAMS, Canals, Weirs, Water Tanks…… Hydraulic machines like CP, RP, Turbines etc. Gates of Dam, Valves to regulate water flow Spillway Ship/ Boat Measure Velocity, viscosity, pressure, discharge of flow……..

34 Def. FLUID ???? FM Dynamic F Kinematic F Kinetic F Static F
Types of Fluid – Ideal Fluid – No Viscosity, Surface Tension, and Incompressible (Imaginary Fluid) Real Fluid – Having VISCOSITY Classification – FM Dynamic F Kinematic F Kinetic F Static F

35 HOME WORK…….. APPLICATIONS of Fluid Mechanics?????

36 Construction Management
The job of a construction manager is to: Provide quality control and insure project is completed on time . Within budget. 4 M’s Men Money Material Machine Constuction of Structure Divided in 2 parts SUBSTRUCTURE SUPERSTRUCTURE

37 Applications 1) Use of Modern Techniques, Machinery for SAFE and SPEEDY work. 2) Use od Modern Material in Special Construction Work like DAMS and TUNNELS 3) Plan the project and decided the sequence 4) Control Labours 5) Economical 6) Good Quality of Work

38 Irrigation Engineering
1) Process of Supplying Water for Agriculture Domestics Industries 2) Construction of DAMs Reservoirs, Weirs…. 3) Management of Water:- train the farmers for OPTIMUM use of Water. 4) Natural Source of Water (HW) - Application of Irrigation Engg. ??????

39 EARTHQUAKE Engg. Earthquake is a destructive and deadly natural phenomenon. Deals with Seismic Zones and their effects on the structure. “SHIFTING Of EARTH” – Design of Foundation Study of Load On Building – DYNAMIC Earthquake PROTECTION- Compact Rectangular Plan All Building Parts Tied Together Parapet or any PROJECTION should not be more than 750 mm Safe distance bet 2 structures Provide Strong FOUNDATION resting on HARD STRATA.



42 Role of C.E. in Const. of BUILDING
Planning and preparing a drawing and its approval Preparation of Design Estimating and Costing Study of Foundation Testing, Supervision and execution Maintenance

43 Role of C.E. in Const. of DAM’s
Site Selection Conduct various Surveys and Collection of Various Data Study of Foundation Study of Catchment Area Reservoir Capacity Selection of DAM Structural and Hydraulic Design Estimate Testing Supervision Execution and maintenances Socio Economic ROLE (Political and Social)

44 Role of C.E. in Const. of EXPRESS WAYs
Planning and Surveying Alignment of Road Contour Plan Design of Road and Pavement Estimate of Road Construction and testing of Express Way Maintenance

45 Importance of Interdisciplinary Approach in Engg.

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