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Paula Wright, Information Services Specialist

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1 Demystifying Census Resources - A Practical Overview of What's There and How to Use it
Paula Wright, Information Services Specialist Suzee Privett, Information Services Assistant Dallas Regional Office US Census Bureau Good (morning/ afternoon) my name is ________________ and I am with the Partnership and Data Services team in the Dallas Regional Office. We will have an overview of the CB’s many different programs and surveys … we want you to know the census that most people know….the one that’s conducted every 10 years….is only one aspect of what we do. We will spent most of our presentation talking about the data and data products that are particularly important for local communities. You are especially going to enjoy learning about the ACS which will allow you to access new data for your state, county and community every year, rather than waiting every 10! Let’s get started!

2 Why It’s Important for YOU to Answer Census Surveys
Help Your Community Thrive Does your neighborhood have a lot of traffic congestion, elderly people living alone or over-crowed schools? Census numbers can help your community work out public improvement strategies. Make Government Work for You Provides the information state and local governments need to improve roads & transportation services, hospitals, schools & many other public services Get Help in Times of Need Gives current information for disaster planning … like how much water or how many beds would be needed in a disaster situation

3 Census Programs that are Most Used for Determining Program Eligibility and the Allocation of Federal Funds Important Differences in How They Are Collected: Decennial Census Actual Count of the Population The American Community Survey Scientifically Selected Random Sample of the Population Census Population Estimates Formulated based on Latest Census Number, Birth Rate, Death Rate and Migration Estimates These are the 3 Census Programs that are most used in determining program eligibility and the allocation of federal funds: an important point is to know how each is collected … The Decennial Census … actual count of the population, use this data for all “total population” counts and counts for age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, # of housing units … any variable (data item) from the 2010 Census. The American Community Survey … sample of the population … do not use the “total pop” numbers from ACS. Use ACS for comparisons and trends. Use for all data not collected from the decennial and pop estimates. The Population Estimates Program … based on latest census number, birth rate, death rate & migration estimates … use for “population totals” when asked for the “most current” estimate or number. We’re going to take the time now to talk about each.

4 2010 Decennial Census … 100% Data
100% data … meaning data from a 100% count of population and housing … not a sample! 2010 Census was Short Form Only! 10 Questions The Data Items from the 2010 Census are: Race Ethnicity Sex Age Household Relationship Housing Tenure (own or rent) We’ll first talk about the decennial census. I want to speak to a big difference in this census in 2010 than in past censuses. The 2010 Census is what we call a ‘Short Form’ only census. In 2000 (and many prior censuses) one in every six households received the census long form. This long form was about 40 pages long and asked 53 questions. But the data that came from this long form was enormously important for non-profits in grant writing, planners and community officials. It released what we call the ‘bread and butter’ data: income, poverty, education, language spoken at home, birthplace/nativity and detailed housing stats like value of home and heating fuel used. This long form is no longer part of the decennial census. But don’t worry because we didn’t stop collecting this data. We’ll talk a bit later about how that data is collected and released. As we mentioned, the 2010 Census is a ‘short form’ only! 10 questions….that’s it. We had a motto, – 10 questions, 10 minutes, 2010 Census! Now I won’t lie to you, if you had more than one person in your household it might take a bit more than 10 minutes but didn’t roll off the tongue as well. The 2010 Census collected the following information: Name, Sex, Age, Race, Ethnicity, Household Relationship and Tenure (whether you own or rent) - that’s it!

5 American Community Survey … New Sample Data Every Year!
Social and Economic information every year rather than just once a decade Takes the place of the census long form At the start of each month, the questionnaire is mailed to a scientifically selected random sample of households in counties throughout the Nation Not a Complete COUNT! Use it to determine population characteristics and to view trends in areas Now to the American Community Survey. For all of you data users that were worried about what happened to our ‘bread and butter’ data fear not! It is now collected by the American Community Survey The ACS is a monthly survey that allows the detailed social, economic and housing data to be released annually rather than waiting every 10 years. Basically, the Census Bureau realized that this data needed to come out more frequently. If you think about the last few years and the tumultuous economy and housing market, looking at data from 2 years ago is useless to us let alone from 10 years. The ACS has taken the place of the decennial census long form that we mentioned earlier. The way it works is that at the start of every month, the questionnaire is mailed out to a random sample of households in every county throughout the Nation. In general, for the US …250,000 per month which is 3 million per year. In 2009 in TX the sample for HUs was 214,434 & the sample for Group Quarters was 13,001. And it works kind of like jury duty. If your address is in sample for any given month, it will be taken out of sample for at least 5 years and probably longer. However, if you move, I can’t promise you won’t get it in consecutive months. Remember it’s all based on addresses. It’s sent to ‘Current Resident’. So if you are living at one address say in May and receive the questionnaire and then move, you could receive it at your new address in June. The Census will obviously still conduct a short form census every 10 years to get a count of the population A very important thing to remember about the ACS as you begin to use the data is that you don’t want to use it as a count of the population. The estimates provided are based on a sample. The data is collected and then weighted to represent the entire population of a given geographic area. You’ll notice as we start to work with the data that every table from the ACS provides a Margin of Error for EVERY data item. So the estimate provided is the BEST estimate based on the sample but it could fall anywhere between that Margin of Error. What you want to do with this data is View Trends and Make Comparisons. What you want to do – using the poverty example again – is say whether the number of people living in poverty in Dallas has increased, has decreased or has stayed the same. Or you want to compare the number of people in poverty in Dallas to another city, or the state of Texas.

Population Estimates Program Formulated based on latest census number, birth rate, death rate and migration. Provides annual population and (some) general demographics (age, sex, race and ethnicity) Data available for Nation, States, Metro Areas, Counties and Cities/Towns General demographic info available only for Nation, States and Counties (not Metro Areas or Cities/Towns) OFFICIAL CENSUS COUNT FOR INTERCENSAL YEARS! With the census happening only every 10 years there is obviously a need for more current population information. This is the job that the Population Estimates Program does. The Pop Estimates Program provides annual population estimates– and in some cases general demographics. The estimates are formulated using the latest Census population figure and factoring in birth rates, death rates and migration states – both internal and external. The data is available for the Nation, States, Metro Areas, Counties and Cities/Towns. The Pop Estimates Program does provide some demographic information – sex, age, race and ethnicity. This demographic information is available only down to the County level. There are no demographic information available at a city or town level. Only population estimates. So you can use the Population Estimates Program to get population estimates for (he City of Dallas for 2001, 2004, 2007 or 2008 but you can’t get an age breakdown or race breakdown for your community. You can get an age or race breakdown for all the intercensal years for Dallas County, the State of Texas and the Nation. The thing to remember about the estimates from the Population Estimates Program is that they are the OFFICIAL CENSUS COUNT for intercensal years.

7 10 Largest Federal Programs that use Census Bureau population and income data as factors. Are these important for your community? Medical Assistance Program (Medicaid) Unemployment Insurance Highway Planning and Construction Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Federal Pell Grant Program Title 1 Grants to Local Educational Agencies Special Education Grants to States National School Lunch Program Head Start This will give you an idea of some of the programs that rely on CB data … and these are just the top 10! In fact, all census and survey questions must be approved by Congress and must have some type of direct legislative need in order to be asked.

8 Federal Funding Data from the Census Bureau
Ever wonder how much your State or County receives in federal funding and for what programs? You can find those numbers by looking at the Consolidated Federal Funds Report issued annually by the Census Bureau at:

9 Example of Federal Funding using Census Bureau Numbers:
Child Care and Development Block Grants Department of Health and Human Services $5 billion spent nationwide in FY 2010 Based on a formula that takes into account : The number of children below the age of 5 Per capita income And the number of children receiving assistance through the School Lunch Program. This slide is just one example of how communities use CB data. This is an example of the Child Care and Development Block Grant. It’s run out of the Department of Health and Human Services and allocated just over 5 billion dollars in FY 2010. This program determines eligibility based on a formula that takes into account the number of children below the age of 5, per capita income and the number of children receiving assistance through the School Lunch program. Note that its not all census data that determines the allocation but a combination. In this case, the census would definitely be able to provide the number of children below 5 and the per capita income but we would not provide the number of children receiving assistance through the School Lunch Program.

10 What Data Are Available for My Community and Where Do I Find It. 1
What Data Are Available for My Community and Where Do I Find It? 1. You Need to Know what Geography You Need 2.You Need to Know what Data Item(s) You Need Now let’s get into accessing the data. There are a couple rules we want to follow before we actually get into using the American Factfinder which is our data access tool. We currently have 2 American FactFinders … the original AFF (now called the legacy AFF) and AFF2 … which is the new FactFinder. Eventually, the legacy AFF will disappear Before jumping onto the site you want to know 2 things. First, know the geographic area or areas you want your data for. And second, you want to know the data that you want. The reason for this is that it will cut down on the potential of getting lost in the factfinder. Now the American FactFinder is a pretty user-friendly tool, but there is so much information in there that if you just go in there and play around with it you are bound to get lost and we want to limit the frustration.

11 Census Geography Census Geography (geographical hierarchy)
Census Statistical Areas Used in Data Products 2010 Geography Products

12 Zip Code Tabulation Area Regions
Nation Metropolitan Areas Zip Code Tabulation Area Regions Divisions States Congressional Districts Places Counties County Subdivision Census Tracts So let’s take a minute or two to talk about Census Geography. You’re looking at the Census geography heirarchy. These are the Geographic Areas for which Census Data is available. At the top we have the Nation. As we move down the list we see Regions and Divisions. Now for the amount of time I’ve been accessing Census data I’ve never used either of these geographies but in case your interested we’ll identify each. There are 4 regions in the US. The one that might interest us is the South Region which includes TX, LA, and MS. There are 9 divisions in the US. One that might interest us is the West South Central Division which provides one number or estimate for all of TX, LA, OK & AR. MS is part of the East South Central Division. We need to talk about the ZIP Code tabulation areas … they will not be available until the 2012 TIGER/Line release. These are census designated areas and have no direct correlation to zip codes from the postal service. These are in no way the actual zip code boundaries. County Subdivisions … both LA & MS have Minor Civil Divisions (MCDs) that are legal boundaries. Whereas CCDs (census county divisions) in TX are not legal and are CB derived. Next comes States and Counties which are pretty self explanatory. You want to pay particular attention to Places. You’ll notice that you don’t see any mention of ‘Cities’ and ‘Towns’ on this list. Well , “Places” are Census Jargon for cities and towns. There are pretty detailed definitions for each of these areas but we’ll simplify it for data access concerns. The bottom 3 geographies are pretty unique to the Census Bureau – Census Tracts, Block Groups and Blocks. They allow for more localized data access. A better way to explain these geographies is visually ,so we put together some maps on the next 3 slides. Important Note: Not all Data are available for all geographies! Block Groups Blocks

13 Census Tract 122.04, Dallas County, Texas
Census Tracts are small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county and generally have a population of 1,500 to 8,000 (optimum 4,000) and follow physical boundaries. Sample data (from the American Community Survey) are available for all census tracts. So let’s take a look at some of these geographies that we just talked about. This is a map of Census Tract in Dallas County, TX. Census Tracts generally have a population thereshold of 1,500 to 8,000 with an optimum population of 4,000. Tracts usually follow physical boundaries – streets, rivers, etc.

14 Block Group 4, Census Tract 122.04, Dallas County, Texas
Block Groups are subdivisions of a census tract and generally have a population of 300 to 4,000 (optimum 1,500) and follow physical boundaries. Sample data are generally available for larger populated areas that meet a disclosure threshold at the Block Group level. Generally the disclosure threshold is 100 or more cases of like characteristics. This is the same map, just zoomed in a bit. The light pink line delineates Block Group 4, in Census Tract in Dallas County. Block Groups are generally between 300 and 4,000 in population with an optimum population of 1,500. Block Groups generally follow physical boundaries.

15 Block 4004, Block Group 4, Census Tract 122.04,
Dallas County, Texas Blocks are the smallest geographic level for which 100% data from the 2010 Census are available. There is no population threshold because there is no sample data ever available for blocks . Block size varies depending on population density. And finally, zoomed in a bit more. The yellow lines delineate the blocks. Specifically we’re looking at Block 4004, in Block Group 4 in Census Tract in Dallas County. Blocks are the smallest geographic level the census bureau provides data for. There isn’t actually a population threshold for blocks. In rural areas blocks could be hundreds of square miles in size and have no one living in them. But in urban areas, a block is generally a city block.

16 Census Geography: How It All Fits Together
122.04 3001 3002 4001 4002 3003 3004 4003 4004 4001 4002 2051 4003 4004 2050 Block Group 4 4004 1001 Block 4004 2057 2056 Census Tract

17 2010 Census Geography Products
Census Bureau Geography 2010 Census Geographic Products 2010 Reference maps are available at: GIS Information 2010 Census TIGER\Line Shapefiles For help and contact: (301) Customer Service number to order paper maps: or Dallas Regional Office Geography:

18 Census Data Products 2010 Census Data 2010 Redistricting Data
2010 Census Demographic Profiles Summary File 1 Summary File 2 American Community Survey American FactFinder

19 First 2010 Census Data Release: Redistricting Data [P. L
First 2010 Census Data Release: Redistricting Data [P.L ] Summary Files Table P1 – Race Table P2 - Hispanic or Latino, and not Hispanic or Latino by Race Table P3 - Race for the Population 18 Years and Over Table P4 - Hispanic or Latino, and not Hispanic or Latino by Race for the Population 18 Years and Over Table H1 - Occupancy Status (Housing) Race: White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Hispanic Not a race, but an ethnic characteristic … Hispanic population can be of any race All Geographic Areas Now Available on AFF2

20 Second 2010 Census Data Release: 2010 Census Demographic Profiles
Data items from the 2010 Census: Age, sex, race, Hispanic Origin, relationship to householder, households by type (family & nonfamily), housing occupancy and vacancy rates, and housing tenure (owner-occupied and renter-occupied housing units.) Geography for Profiles: United States, States, Counties, Places, American Indian & Alaska Native areas, Hawaiian Home Lands, Core Based Statistical Areas, Congressional Districts & State Legislative Districts More detailed characteristics than the PL , but not as much detail as SF1 or SF2 All Geographic Areas Now Available on AFF2

21 Third 2010 Census Data Release: Summary File 1 (100% Data)
Table Outlines for SF1 are available on 2010 Census Data Products … At a Glance : Household Relationship Sex Age Hispanic/Latino Origin Race Tenure (own/rent) Vacancy Characteristics (occupied/vacant) The data from Summary File 1 is available down to the block level – the lowest level of geography we provide data for. All Geographic Areas Now Available on AFF2

22 Fourth 2010 Census Data Release: Summary File 2 (100% Data)
Summary File 2: Cross references detailed race and ethnic categories and American Indian & Alaska Native Tribes with all data subjects in SF1 Table Outlines + detailed Race & Hispanic categories + American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes for SF 2 are available on 2010 Census Data Products … At a Glance : SF2 will be released on a State-by-State basis from December 2011 – April 2012 In order to talk about Summary File 2, we need to first understand race and ethnicity. The Census Bureau recognizes 6 major race categories and the Hispanic Ethnicity These groups are White, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaskan Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander and Some Other Race. These major groups are cross referenced with the data in Summary File 1. So if you wanted an Age breakdown for the Asian population or a Household Relationship breakdown for the Hispanic population you would use Summary File 1. What Summary File 2 does is allow for accessing the data for detailed race groups, detailed ethnic groups and ancestry groups. So instead of the Asian race group as a whole, you can look at data for Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc. And instead of looking at data for the Hispanic ethnicity as a whole. You can get data for the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Guatemalan, etc. groups. SF 2 releases the data in SF 1 for these detailed groups. So if you were looking for an Age breakdown for the Chinese population or a Household Relationship breakdown for the Dominican population you would use Summary File 2. And remember, this is the data that will be collected and released by the 2010 Census and future decennials.

23 American Community Survey: Sample Data
Value of home or monthly rent paid Units in structure Year structure built Number of rooms and number of bedrooms Year moved into residence Plumbing and kitchen facilities Telephone service Vehicles available Heating fuel Farm residence Utilities, mortgage, taxes Insurance and fuel costs Population Housing Marital Status Place of birth, citizenship, & entry year School enrollment/education attainment Ancestry Migration Language spoken Veteran status Disability Grandparents as caregivers Labor force status Place of work, journey to work Occupation, industry, class of worker Work status Income Poverty Those familiar with the 2000 Census will remember that Summary File 3 released the long form or sample data. This was the detailed social, economic and housing data that was asked to a sample of households. It includes data like income, poverty, education, language spoken at home, etc. This data is now collected by the American Community Survey. ACS data is available down to the Census Tract or Block Group level. You will never find ACS data at the block level. So no income data, poverty data, etc. is available for a block. This is for confidentiality purposes. We don’t want a person or household to be identified based on our data. So the Census Bureau takes it a step further than just prohibiting this detailed data at the block level. If a person or household could potentially be identified based on our data we will suppress it and you will be forced to look at the data for the next highest geo level. For example, if you were looking up Income data for Asian households in a certain Block Group and that Block Group only had one Asian Household, the data would be suppressed because you could potentially determine that households income. You would be forced to look at the data at the Census Tract level. And remember, this long form data is now collected by the American Community Survey and released on an annual basis. Released Every Year

24 American Community Survey
1-Year Estimates for 2010 & 3-Year Estimates for are on AFF2 Now! 5-Year Estimates for will be on AFF2 in December 2011 1-Year Estimates: Areas with a population 65,000+ (data available for 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010) 3 -Year Estimates: Areas with a population 20, (data available for , , , and ) 5 -Year Estimates: Areas below 20,000 (including census tracts & block groups) (data available for ) So what data is available from the ACS? Well, you can tell by the text that there is currently data available from This summer ACS will release estimates for 2010 and every year after. What you see in the middle of the slide is a sort of data release timeline for ACS. Every year we release 1, 3, and 5 year estimates based on the population size of the geographic area.

25 Population Thresholds for ACS Estimates
1-year estimates 3-year estimates 5-year estimates 65,000 + people X 20,000+ people Less than 20,000 people This slide illustrates how many estimates are available for areas according to their population size: Areas with 65,000 or more population, will have 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year estimates available every year. Areas with 20,000 or more people, will have 3-year and 5-year estimates available every year. Areas with less than 20,000 people (including census tracts and block groups), will only have 5-year estimates available every year. So if your area has multiple estimates available … how do you know which one to use?

26 Use Multiyear Estimates When …
No 1-year estimate is available Margins of error for 1-year estimates are larger than required Analyzing data for small population groups Comparing Across Geographies Only compare the same type of estimate 1-year estimates to other 1-year estimates 3-year estimates to other 3-year estimates 5-year estimates to other 5-year estimates Only compare the same time periods

27 Comparing ACS Data for Different Areas: Using the Same Type & Same Time Period
2010 Census Population Dallas County, TX 2,368,139 Cooke County, TX 38,437 Andrews County, TX 14,786 ACS 1-Yr Estimate: 2010 ACS 3-Yr Estimate: ACS 5-Yr Estimate: Dallas County X Cooke County Andrews County This slide gives us a graphic example of how to compare ACS data for different areas: Dallas County, at almost 2.3 million pop, will have all ( the 1-yr., 3-yr. & 5-yr.) ASC estimates available every year Cooke County, at almost 39,000 pop, will have both the 3-yr and the 5-yr estimates available every year Andrews County, at almost 15,000, will only have the 5-yr estimate available every year But, if you want to do a comparison between these 3 counties, you can only compare them based on the 5-yr estimates … because Andrews only has the 5-yr estimate available. Also … at this time, the year estimates are not available

28 Currency vs. Reliability
1-year estimates provide information based on the last year Larger sample sizes produce estimates that are more statistically reliable 3-year estimates provide information based on the last year and the 2 years before that 3-year estimates are based on 3 times as many sample cases as 1-year estimates 5-year estimates provide information based on the last year and the 4 years before that 5-year estimates are based on 5 times as many sample cases as 1-year estimates This graph shows that the larger areas, which have all 3 or 2 types of estimates being released every year, must make a decision of which to use. Generally, the more sample cases used for the estimate make the estimate more reliable … so you must decide which is more important … being more current or being more reliable!

29 % Bachelor’s Degree or Higher Population 25 years and over
American Community Survey 5 year estimates Texas Dallas County City of Dallas Census Tract 122.04 25.5% +/- 0.2 MOE 27.5% +/- 0.6 MOE 28.3% +/- 0.9 MOE 20.1% +/- 5.3 MOE This slide shows the “Percent of the Population that have a Bachelor’s Degree or Higher” for the state, county, city and for a census tract in the city of Dallas. You’ll notice that this data comes from the 2009 ACS 5yr estimates. Even though the State of TX, Dallas County, and the City of Dallas are well above the 65,000 threshold … the census tract is not and will only have the 5-yr estimate available … so for the comparison, the 5 yr estimate is the only one you can use to compare all 4 geographies. Notice the Margins of Errors associated with each percentage. What you’ll also notice is the larger the area, the smaller the MOE MOE … Margin of Error

30 Other American Community Survey Products of Special Interest: 1
Other American Community Survey Products of Special Interest: 1.The Equal Employment Opportunity Special Tabulation (EEO) 2.Census Transportation Planning Product (CTPP)

31 American Community Survey 2006-2010 Special EEO Tabulation
Special Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Tabulation Home-to-work flows by industry/occupation and several demographic characteristics Released in 2012 via AFF Subject Matter Variables: detailed occupation categories, race and ethnicity, citizenship, sex, educational attainment, older age groups, younger age groups, industry and earnings The EEO file was always one of the most popular data products from any decennial census, so what happens now that the long form data is collected by the ACS? The EEO file is a special data product ,usually done after each decennial census from the long form data, sponsored by a consortium of Federal agencies … the CB, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), the Department of Justice, and the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). It has just been announced that a new EEO file will be produced using the 2006 – 2010 ACS data and be released in late 2012 on American FactFinder.

32 3-Year Census Transportation Planning Products
What is the CTPP? A set of special tabulations from the American Community Survey tailored for the data needs of transportation planners Produced by the Census Bureau, sponsored and owned by American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) The CTPP is Available Now Based on ACS 2006, 2007, 2008 Available for areas of 20,000 population or greater This is another special file that usually accompanies the decennial census long-form data release. It too will be using the ACS data and is currently available.

33 Where To Find the Data: & American FactFinder

34 Contact Us Regional Office Boundaries Effective January 1, 2013
Current 2012 Regional Offices & States They Serve

35 It’s how America knows what America needs!
Thank You Very Much The Partnership and Data Services Office is here to serve the States of Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas … call us for assistance at One final request … We need your help in spreading the word to your family, friends, and co-workers to answer census surveys … they are just as important as the every 10 year census in bringing needed services to your community! It’s how America knows what America needs!

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