Presentation on theme: "Talbot Barnaby & Kirstin Ward. Deciduous forests can be found in the eastern half of North America, and the middle of Europe. There are many deciduous."— Presentation transcript:
Deciduous forests can be found in the eastern half of North America, and the middle of Europe. There are many deciduous forests in Asia. Some of the major areas that they are in are southwest Russia, Japan, and eastern China. South America has two big areas of deciduous forests in southern Chile and Middle East coast of Paraguay. There are deciduous forests located in New Zealand, and southeastern Australia also.
The average annual temperature in a deciduous forest is 10°C. One thing that is interesting about this biome and its climate is that it has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Most deciduous forests have mild summers averaging about 21 °C. Summer months usually begin in early June and end in late August. Winter months don't begin until December. Winter temperatures are fairly cool with an average temperature of a little below freezing. Almost all of the world's deciduous forest is located by an ocean. The ocean and the wind are two big factors of why the temperature and climate change so much in this biome. Climate is a mix of temperature and precipitation. Deciduous forests have almost 14 inches of rain in the winter months and more than 18 inches of rain in the summer.
The word "deciduous" means exactly what the leaves on these trees do: change color in autumn, fall off in the winter, and grow back again in the spring. This adaptation helps trees in the forest survive winter. One of the most defining feature about the temperate deciduous forest is it’s changing seasons. Other important features also are the trees there are many kind but the largest is the oak tree.
In the Summer, the trees broad leaves capture energy from the sun and convert it to food by photosynthesis. Some of the food is used for growth and some is stored in the roots for next spring. During the shorter days and cooler weather of autumn, green chlorophyll in the leaves begins to decompose, revealing brilliant oranges, yellows, and reds. Actually, these colors were present in the leaves all year long, but had been hidden by the green pigment of the chlorophyll.
To prepare for winter, deciduous trees and plants become dormant. They loose their leaves and seal the places where leaves were attached with a protective covering called a leaf scar. If they kept their leaves, the water in the leaves would freeze into ice, damaging the leaves and leaving the plant vulnerable to bacteria or fungi. Plants also make a concentrated sugar solution to stop water from freezing in their stems. The longer days and warmer weather of spring signal to the trees to grow new leaves and begin photosynthesis again.
Animals in temperate deciduous forests also have to adapt to the changing seasons. They must be able to cope with cold winters when food is in short supply. Migration and hibernation are two adaptations used by the animals in this biome. A great variety of birds migrate to warmer places where they can find food more easily. Some mammals (e.g., bears) hibernate during the cold winter months.
Animals in temperate deciduous forests also have to adapt to the changing seasons. They must be able to cope with cold winters when food is in short supply. Migration and hibernation are two adaptations used by the animals in this biome. A great variety of birds migrate to warmer places where they can find food more easily. Some mammals (e.g., bears) hibernate during the cold winter months. Hibernation is an inactive, sleeplike state that some animals enter during the winter. Animals that hibernate protect themselves against the cold and reduce their need for food. A hibernating animal's body temperature is lower than normal, and its heartbeat and breathing slow down greatly. An animal in this state needs little energy to stay alive and can live off fat stored in its body. Thus, hibernating animals can more easily survive the cold winter months. Squirrels, chipmunks, and some jays often store large supplies of food (such as nuts and seeds) in the ground, under fallen leaves, or in tree hollows for use during the cold winters when food is scarce. Cold temperatures help prevent the decomposition of the nuts and seeds.
Air pollutants from fuels we burn are destroying forests, killing our wildlife and poisoning the soil Millions of acres of forests have suffered from the effects of acid rain. It damages their leaves and causes production of smaller fruit and less seeds used in reproduction. Even slight damage to trees can easily kill them because it reduces their resistance to frost, fungi, and deadly diseases and pests. Mining involves stripping off the forest to get to the rock underneath. The acres and acres of land used in mining are damaged to the extent that forests do not regrow on the damaged and depleted soils.