Presentation on theme: "Migration, Communities and Services: learning from the project Christine Whitehead LSE London Migration and the Transformation of London LSE London 27."— Presentation transcript:
Migration, Communities and Services: learning from the project Christine Whitehead LSE London Migration and the Transformation of London LSE London 27 th June 2014
Migrants Use of Services If we need the labour, international migrants are relatively cheap compared to internal migrants in terms of the use of public services They live in smaller homes at higher densities They use less educational facilities They use fewer health services And much more Over time their use converges to that of local households with similar attributes
Exceptions Language issues Excessive turnover issues –especially in education Costs associated with NOT using services – TB; A and E In service terms better if they come; stay quite a while; and then go home happily to build links with their colleagues in London The rich country/poor country story
Migrants Use of Housing The household projections assume that migrants behaviour is exactly the same as indigenous households with the same attributes So they overestimate the number of households Importance of turnover not simply net changes(not well understood) and specifics of immigration Variations since 2000 in types of migrants – refugees /economic; initial migrant/family members; non-European/European; rich countries/poor countries
But Migrant Housing Demand a Major Source of Local Tension Refugees take priority – but moved out of London (tho they come back later?) Major issue: large families needing limited numbers of larger social homes Once eligible for Housing Benefit, other migrant groups may apply for social housing After 3 years in some places migrants (defined as born abroad) are disproportionately in social housing But this is the same across Europe among poorer migrant and indeed ethnic minority households Concentrations of poverty and ethnic groups by tenure and location - but more mixed in London Insider/outside issues in terms of attitudes –little distinction between migration and ethnicity; some evidence of more established migrants being as anti or more anti new groups; do people care if the person moving in is from abroad; from elsewhere in the UK or indeed elsewhere in London?
Social Housing: Migrants and Ethnicity Country Proportion of ethnic minorities/immigrants in overall population Percentage of all immigrants/minorities who live in social housing Percentage of social housing residents who are from a minority or immigrants Austria 11% non-Austrian citizens; 18% with foreign origins (2010) 20+%*6% Czech Republic 3% (2012)n.a. Denmark Immigrants and their children: about 10%60% About 25% (immigrants and their children) England 10% of heads of household are from an ethnic minority; 7.5% of UK residents were born abroad 27% (minorities)16% (minorities) France 30% (foreign-born)2x share in population Germany 9% (immigrants)Varies by region and cityParticularly high in Berlin and Munich Hungary** Ethnic minorities: approximately 600-800,000 Roma (Dupcsik 2009) and 237,000 other minorities (Census 2001) – altogether about 8-10% of population. Immigrants: 2.9% of population in 2001 was born abroad, 80% reported they were of Hungarian ethnicity (Gödri, 2009) Data available only for Roma: 12% (UNDP/WB/EC) Share of Roma among social tenants is around 25-30%, in terms of housing units 20-25% (estimates) Ireland 10% born abroadNot available Netherlands 23% of housing stock occupied by households with non-Dutch head 51% of immigrants31% Scotland All minority ethnic: 2%17%1.4% Spain Immigrants 11.22% as of end-2011Not available Sweden 15% of overall population; up to 89% in particular neighbourhoods. Varies by regionOver 30% in metropolitan areas; 15% elsewhere
Community Role of the private rented sector and high rates of turnover in generating higher costs to community and services Policy pressures to move out of London if benefit dependent (and Housing Benefit goes far above median incomes in many central areas) Aspirant households – families take part in community activities etc, discouraged households less involved – are migrant households any different? Speed of change – turning to David……..