2 What you will know Common features of an Operating System HCI, File Management, error reporting, memory managementModes of processingInteractive & Real-timeDevice DriversTypes of filing systemFlat & HierarchalTypes of accessRandom & Sequential
3 What is software?Software is the term that we use for all the programs and data that we use with a computer system.Two types of softwareProgramThe instructions that the computer follows (e.g. a word processor or a game).DataWhat the programs process (e.g. a word processing document or a saved game)
4 More on software There are two types of program software. Applications softwarePrograms designed to carry out a manual task (Word Processors, Databases, Graphics etc.)Systems SoftwarePrograms used to organise the computer, handle its devices, manage memory etc.OS is a program like word but is a systems softwareThe Operating System is Systems Software
5 Operating SystemsThe operating system (OS) is the most important program used by the computer.The OS organises many things within the computer.
6 Operating Systems (OS) The OS is stored on hard disc and loaded into RAM when the computer starts up.Some computers store their OS in ROM so that it cannot be erased by accident.The operating system controls and monitors the operation of the computer system.The filing system is part of the OS and it controls the loading and saving of programs and data from backing storage.
7 Examples of OS Windows Linux Mac OS Unix for large file servers and networks
8 Standard Functions of the OS User interface (HCI)The OS provides the means of the user communicating (interacting) with the computer systemFeatures such as windows, icons, menus, commands, etc. are all provided by the operating systemOpen word processorOS
9 Standard Functions of the OS Controls input/outputThe access to all devices attached to the computer is controlled by the OS.For example, the OS can stop two programs trying to use the same device at the same time.
10 Standard Functions of the OS Manages memoryControls where programs and data are placed in the main memory.Error ReportingThe operating system lets the user know if any mistakes have occurredE.g. No paper in printer
11 Modes of Processing Interactive Accepting input from a human. Interactive computer systems are programs that allow users to enter data or commands.Most popular programs, such as word processors and spreadsheet applications, are interactive.In interactive processing, the application responds to commands as quickly as it can once they have been entered.Sometimes there is a delay while the processor finishes another task.
12 Modes of Processing Real-Time Real-time operating systems are systems that respond to input immediately.Automatic teller machines for banks are an example of real-time processing.Real-time systems are used for tasks such as navigation, in which the computer must react to a steady flow of new information without interruption.
13 Interactive Systems with Background Job Capability Some operating systems allow a background process to occur at the same time as a foreground interactive process.The foreground process is the one that accepts input from the keyboard, mouse, or other input device.Background processes cannot accept interactive input from a user.For example, some word processors print files in the background, enabling you to continue editing while files are being printed.
14 Device DriversA device driver is a program which is an add-on to the operating system in a computerIt is used to allow communication between a particular device and the computer.A scanner or a printer are examples of devices that may need drivers.
15 Filing System The filing system manages backing storage It controls access to all types of backing storage devicesIt will prevent two programs trying to access the same files at the same time.Data stored in backing storage in areas called Directories (Windows call them folders)
16 Hierarchical filing system ComputerC:/D:/DrivesFoldersFiles
17 Hierarchical filing system A filing system in which directories have files and subdirectories beneath them.A hierarchical filing system is one that uses directories to organise files into a tree structure.Work on same topic can be grouped togetherEasier to find files as they are in their own directoryFiles can have the same name as long as in different directories
18 Access Types Random/Direct Access Sequential Access Retrieves the data you want straight away.CD-ROM drive, Hard disc drive, Floppy disc drive.Sequential AccessMove through record after record to find the data you want.Magnetic tape
20 What you will know Other examples of systems software Common features of HLLTypes of languageSpecial PurposeGeneral PurposeTranslatorsCompilerInterpreter
21 Systems SoftwareThe operating system is just one example of systems software.Other examples of systems software are:Anti-virus toolsDisk utilitiesProgramming toolsPrinter manager utilitiesAll these are examples of programs. Programs can be written in a number of different ways...
22 High Level Languages Common Features Written similar to English Common internal structuresloops, IF & Case statementsBuilt in error checkingPortable (can be moved to different machines)Most designed for special purpose…
23 Types of Language General purpose Special Purpose Written for a wide variety of tasks.They can be used for any type of application however may make particular tasks difficult to do.Special PurposeSpecial purpose high level languages are written for particular types of task.For example: Basic, Pascal, C, etcMake tasks easier to carry out.
24 Translators High Level languages need to be changed into machine code. This is done using a translatorTypes of translator:CompilerInterpreterAssembler
25 Interpreter Translates line by line Immediately executes HLL programs Each HLL statement is translated, converted and turned in to machine code.Immediately executes HLL programsIs used during build and testing.Needs to be translated every time program is executed
26 Interpreter Current Location 10 Print “HELLO” HELLO Interpreter 20 Print names$30 LET a=a+140 Repeat50 a=a+160 b=b+270 UNTIL Not d+23=180 “Screenload “file1”90 Execute code2InterpreterProgram10 Print “HELLO”HELLO
27 CompilerA program that translates source code (HLL) into machine code in one go.Final program only translated once.Compiled program runs faster then interpreted one.Other machines don’t need translator to execute program.Takes time to produce programDifficult to detect errors
28 Compiled Program (Machine Code) CompilerCompiled Program (Machine Code)Source CodeCompilerProgram
29 AssemblerAssembly language has the same structure and set of commands as machine code, but it allows a programmer to use names instead of numbers.Uses less memory than HLLProgram execution fast compared to HLLWritten for one type of processor won't run on another.Harder to program