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CREATED BY: ASHLEY KATZ Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety Disorders-Description Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. However,

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Presentation on theme: "CREATED BY: ASHLEY KATZ Anxiety Disorders. Anxiety Disorders-Description Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. However,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CREATED BY: ASHLEY KATZ Anxiety Disorders

2 Anxiety Disorders-Description Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. However, anxiety disorders are different than “everyday anxiety.” They cause a lot of distress that interferes with a person’s ability to lead a normal life. Anxiety disorder is a serious mental illness that causes a life of worry and fear that can be overwhelming and crippling.

3 Types of Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder- People with this condition have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. Symptoms of a panic attack include: sweating, chest pain, palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats), a feeling of choking-which may make the person feel like he/she is having a heart attack or “going crazy.” Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)- involves overwhelming worry and self- consciousness about everyday social situations. The worry often centers on a fear of being judged by others, or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule. Specific phobias- An intense fear of a specific object or situation, such as snakes, heights, or flying. The level of fear is usually inappropriate to the situation and may cause the person to avoid common, everyday situations. Generalized anxiety disorder-involves excessive, unrealistic worry and tension, even if there is little or nothing to provoke the anxiety.

4 Symptoms/Problems Symptoms may vary depending on the type of anxiety disorder, but general symptoms include:  Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness  Problems sleeping  Cold or sweaty hands and/or feet  Shortness of breath  Heart Palpitations  An inability to be still and calm  Dry mouth  Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet  Nausea  Muscle Tension  Dizziness

5 What Causes Anxiety Disorders? The exact cause of anxiety disorders is unknown. However, anxiety disorders like other forms of mental illnesses –are not the result of personal weakness, a character flaw, or poor upbringing. As scientists continue their research on mental illness, they are finding that many of these disorders are caused by a combination of factors, including changes in the brain and environmental stress. Anxiety disorders may be caused by problems in the functioning of brain circuits that regulate fear and other emotions. Studies have shown that:  Severe or long-lasting stress can change the way nerve cells within these circuits transmit information from one region of the brain to another.  People with certain anxiety disorders have changes in certain brain structures that control memories linked with strong emotions.  Studies have shown that anxiety disorders run in the family, which means that they can at least partly be inherited from one or both parents, like the risk of heart disease or cancer.  Environmental factors—such as trauma or a significant event may trigger an anxiety disorder in people who have an inherited susceptibility to developing the disorder.

6 Causes (cont’d) Magnification - The tendency to “make mountains out of molehills” by interpreting situations as being far more harmful, dangerous, or embarrassing than they actually are. All-or-nothing thinking-in which a person believes that his or her performance must be perfect or the result will be total failure. Over-generalization- jumping to conclusions without facts to support that conclusion. Minimization- Giving little or no emphasis to one’s successes or positive events and traits are other examples of irrational thinking.

7 Causes (Cont’d) Growing evidence shows that biological factors contribute to anxiety disorders. For example, generalized anxiety disorder, has been linked to an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in the nervous system, including lower levels of serotonin and GABA. (Brawman- Mintzer & Lydiard, 1997; Rynn et al., 2000) Lower levels of neurotransmitters may reduce the ability for a person to react calmly to stress. Research has linked panic disorder to a possible defect in the way serotonin binds to its receptors in the nervous system. (Neumeister et al.,2004) Some evidence suggest that these chemical imbalances

8 Therapy for Anxiety Disorders Therapy is usually the most effective option. Therapy gives you the tools to overcome anxiety and teaches you how to use them. Therapy will be tailored to your specific symptoms and concerns, as well as the length of therapy time. According to the American Psychological Association, many people improve significantly within 8-10 sessions. The leading approaches to treat anxiety include: Behavior Therapy and Exposure Therapy. Therapy can be used alone or combined with other types. It can also take place individually, or with a group of people (with similar anxiety problems.)

9 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy The most widely-used therapy for anxiety disorders. Research has shown it to be effective in the treatment of:  Panic disorders  Phobias  Social anxiety disorder  Generalized anxiety disorder  And other conditions It addresses negative patterns and distortions in the way we look at ourselves and the world. It involves 2 main components:  Cognitive Therapy- examines how negative thoughts, or cognitions, contribute to anxiety.  Behavior Therapy- examines how you behave and react in situations that trigger anxiety. The basic premise is that our thoughts-not external events-affect the way we feel.

10 Cognitive Therapy (cont’d) The goal  to identify and correct these negative thoughts and beliefs.


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