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Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Margaret Michalowski Statistics.

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Margaret Michalowski Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Immigration Data Collection: Context, Process and Challenges Margaret Michalowski Statistics Canada UNECE Workshop on international migration statistics for countries of CIS and South Eastern Europe Nov. 23-24, 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland

2 2 Key Canadian data sources  Census of population  Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB)  Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC)  Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS)  Other household surveys Labour Force Survey General Social Survey Canadian Community Health Survey

3 3 The Canadian context  Canada has welcomed more than 13 million international migrants since 1901 with the largest intake at the beginning of the 20 th century and increasing numbers since the 1990s.  Immigration is an increasingly important component of population growth in Canada – about 70% of growth in 2000s due to immigration.  At the beginning of the 21 st century, Canada has a higher proportion of foreign- born than the United States, but lower than Australia. Canada: 18% Australia: 22% United States: 11%  Immigrants disproportionately settle in Canada’s largest cities, which they choose because of friends and family already settled there.  Immigrants to Canada are largely coming from Asia and the Middle East, Africa and Latin and South America, thereby increasing the “visible minority” population in Canada. By 2017, one in five in Canada could belong to a visible minority group.

4 4 Ways to identify target populations  Landed immigrant status Landed immigrant Non-immigrant Non-permanent resident  Citizenship Canadian citizen by birth Canadian citizen by naturalization Not a Canadian citizen  Place of birth Inside Canada Outside Canada  Generational status First generation: immigrants Second generation: children of immigrants Third generation and beyond

5 5 Census of population

6 6 Census process  Content Determination Process The Consultation Process Content Testing Program Approval by Cabinet  Census communications Before May 16, 2006: Making Canadians aware of the Census and encouraging participation. After Census day, the Communications program is responsible for providing support for dissemination of data.  To assist people whose first language is neither English nor French, questions have been translated into 62 other languages, including 18 Aboriginal languages.  Census dissemination – getting the information out to the public and to the data users.

7 7 Place of birth, citizenship and immigration questions


9 9 Place of birth of parents question  This question is used to derive generational status in Canada First generation Second generation Third generation plus  Another measure of diversity in Canada that captures immigration history

10 10 What the Census data tell us  Size & origins of the immigrant population, children of immigrants and ethnic groups. An important source of data for the development and evaluation of immigration policy. An indicator of future immigrants’ ability to adapt to Canadian society  Settlement & mobility patterns of immigrants over time  Citizenship is one of the indicators of integration. One of the benefits of citizenship is the right to vote. Governments use this data for electoral planning.

11 11  Advantages data available for small geographic areas: cities, neighborhoods and rural areas more than 100 years of historical data large sample size – 20% of the population is sampled  Limitations no longitudinal data – cannot follow the same respondent over time no year of arrival information  asks when year of landed immigrant status was obtained no immigration program information  i.e. Categories of admission, landing characteristics outcome measures, rather than process Advantages and limitations of census data

12 12 How census data are used  Data are used by all levels of government, the private sector and social and community groups.  Census information may be used in program planning and development by governments.  Businesses may use it to assess demand and help market their products.  Academic community and media may use to stay abreast of topics of current interest and identify trends in Canadian society.

13 13 Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB)  Administrative database of linked immigration files with taxation files  Supported by a federal-provincial consortium, led by the department of Citizenship & Immigration Canada (CIC)  Longitudinal: updated annually all landed immigrants from 1980 on (tracking for 16 years since first filing tax) tax data from 1980 on

14 14 Content of the IMDB  Designed to address the need for detailed, policy-relevant data on the immigration program  Content includes: demographic data & characteristics of landing program & selection information detailed income data over time geographic location over time  Related dataset – Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD) LAD includes a subset of immigrants and the Canadian-born with longitudinal tax information

15 15 What the IMDB can tell us  Link between immigrant policy levers (e.g., selection criteria) and economic outcomes  Labour market behaviour of different categories of admission of immigrants over time  Secondary inter-provincial & inter-urban migration of immigrants  Potential information on immigrant children

16 16  Advantages link between admission information and economic outcomes secondary inter-provincial & inter-urban migration of immigrants combined with the LAD – can compare immigrants with the Canadian-born population  Limitations no information on human capital acquired after migration no family/household information Advantages and Limitations of the IMDB

17 17 Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC)  Objectives longitudinal survey designed to study how new immigrants adjust to life in Canada during the initial years to provide information on the factors that can help or hinder this adjustment  Target population arrived in Canada between October 2000 and September 2001 landed from abroad age 15 and over

18 18 Sampling Frame and Design  Sampling frame administrative immigration files provided by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)  Design includes representative samples of as many immigration categories as possible longitudinal – same respondent interviewed 3 times: approximately 6 months, 2 years and 4 years after landing in Canada Computer Assisted Interviewing (CAI), face-to-face interview environment average household visit of 90 minutes interviews are conducted in 15 different languages

19 19 LSIC Questionnaire Content  Socio-demographic information (Wave 1 only)  Reasons for coming to Canada (Wave 1 only)  Social interactions  Language skills  Housing  Education  Employment  Health  Values and attitudes  Citizenship  Perceptions of settlement  Income  Event history analysis for housing, employment & education experiences since arrival  Problems encountered, type of help needed & sources of help received Information on many aspects of the adjustment process of newcomers – all from the immigrant’s perspective

20 20 Labour Force Survey  The Labour Force Survey provides estimates of employment and unemployment which are among the most timely and important measures of performance of the Canadian economy.  New content of the survey include monthly estimates of:  Country of birth  Landed immigrant status  Year of immigration  Month of immigration Collection started in January 2006 survey Will provide for the foreign-born and immigrant populations:  Labour market characteristics  Employment and unemployment characteristics  Demographic and education information

21 21 Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS)  Survey Objectives: to provide information on the ethnic & cultural backgrounds of people in Canada and how these backgrounds relate to their lives today to better understand how Canadians of different ethnic backgrounds interpret and report their ethnicity  Target population: population aged 15 and over living in private dwellings in the 10 provinces, excluding Indian Reserves and Aboriginal population

22 22 EDS content  Content modules and themes: Ethnic self definition: ancestry & identity Background: immigration history, citizenship, religion, language Socio-economic characteristics Family interaction Social networks Civic participation Interaction with society: feeling uncomfortable or out of place, discrimination or unfair treatment in the past five years as a result of ethno-cultural characteristics Attitudes

23 23 Other household surveys  Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) sample size – 132,000 20,000 immigrants  Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) 2 cross-sectional panels at any one time plus a longitudinal component  3,500 – 4,000 immigrants in each panel  Potential for 7,000 immigrants if combining 2 cross-sectional panels  General Social Survey (GSS) sample size – 25,000 4,200 immigrants  Other research potential Workplace and Employment Survey (WES) Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALS) World Values Survey

24 24 Census on the World Wide Web

25 25 Immigration data disseminated to the public

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