Presentation on theme: "Overview of DMAIC A Systematic Framework for Problem Solving"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of DMAIC A Systematic Framework for Problem Solving Organization:Name:Date:12345DEFINEMEASUREANALYZEIMPROVECONTROLThis module provides a quick tour through all steps of DMAIC. Later modules explore each step in depth.DEFINE: Define the ProjectDefine the project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customerMEASURE: Measure the Current SituationFocus the improvement effort by gathering information on the current situationANALYZE: Analyze to Identify CausesIdentify root causes and confirm them with dataIMPROVE: Implement Solutions & Evaluate ResultsDevelop, try out, and implement solutions that address root causesUse data to evaluate both the solutions and the plans used to carry them outCONTROL: Standardize & Make Future PlansMaintain the gains by standardizing work methods or processesAnticipate future improvements and preserve the lessons from this effort
2 Why Use an Improvement Method? Provides a frameworkProvides common languageProvides a checklist to prevent skipping critical stepsAllows you to improve how you improve
3 Overview of DMAIC 1 2 3 4 5 DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL This module provides a quick tour through all steps of DMAIC. Later modules explore each step in depth.DEFINE: Define the ProjectDefine the project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customerMEASURE: Measure the Current SituationFocus the improvement effort by gathering information on the current situationANALYZE: Analyze to Identify CausesIdentify root causes and confirm them with dataIMPROVE: Implement Solutions & Evaluate ResultsDevelop, try out, and implement solutions that address root causesUse data to evaluate both the solutions and the plans used to carry them outCONTROL: Standardize & Make Future PlansMaintain the gains by standardizing work methods or processesAnticipate future improvements and preserve the lessons from this effort
4 DEFINE: Define the Project 12345DEFINEMEASUREANALYZEIMPROVECONTROLGoalDefine the project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customerUnderstand current situationOutputA clear statement of the intended improvement and how it is to be measuredA high level map of the processA translation of the “Voice of the Customer” into “Critical To Quality”What is the objective?Voice of the customer – what is important to them
6 DEFINE, cont. Tools Charter (Passport) to proceed Link to Business needsHigh-level flow analysis depicting the major components of your processCharterPurpose:Importance:Resources:Scope:Schedule:____A project charter documents what the project is supposed to achieve and what resources are available to you. A written charter is an important communication and reference tool.A SIPOC analysis (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers) helps you understand the key elements of your process and define the boundaries and scope for your project.Note: We’ll give a brief overview of the tools here. They will be covered in greater depth later, so don’t worry about memorizing them now.
7 DEFINE, cont.ToolsCustomer research such as interviews, focus groups, surveys, complaints, dataPareto chart(s) depicting why this project is important to the customerData from customers will help you understand what’s important about your project and set priorities if the project needs to be narrowed in scope.A Pareto chart helps you focus your effort on the problems that are causing the most trouble—helping you identify the areas where your efforts will have the biggest payback.Note: Depending on what kinds of data you are already collecting, you may also be able to use other data tools that help you quantify the opportunity or gap. For instance, if you have time plots or control charts, you can mark the goal or customer criteria on those charts.
8 MEASURE: Understand the Current Situation GoalFocus the improvement effort by gathering specific informationOutputData that pinpoints problem location or occurrenceBaseline data on how well the process meets customer needsUnderstanding of how current process operatesMore focused problem statement51CONTROLDEFINEIMPROVEMEASURE42ANALYZE3
9 MEASURE, cont. Approach Collect baseline data on defects and possible causal factorsPlot defect dataover time andanalyze forspecial causesCalculate process capabilityCreate & stratifyfrequency plots and do Pareto analysis(if appropriate)Create detailed process maps
10 MEASURE, cont.ToolsProcess behavior charts or time plots help you look for patterns over time (variation)Frequency plots reveal differences in how often a problem occurs in different settingsControl charts help you quantify the current capability of your process and identify when special events interrupt usual operationsStratified frequency plots help you identify process characteristics that may provide clues on the potential causes of problems
11 MEASURE, cont.Components ofthe problemToolsPareto charts used to stratify the indicator into its major contributorsSubcomponents ofProblem AABCDA1A2A3A4Problem Statement“We’ve pinpointedwhere a specificproblem occurs mostoften. Biggest paybackwill come from focusingour attention here.”As in DEFINE, Pareto charts help you focus your attention and develop a detailed problem statement.
12 MEASURE, cont.ToolsProcess sigma calculations that describe current process capabilityFlowcharts that depict process problems (such as steps that don’t add value)Calculating a baseline process sigma level provides a gauge for you to evaluate your progressFlowcharts will help you identify problems in the process that are contributing to waste and defectsValue is something the customer is willing to pay for, done right the first time, and changes form, fit or function
13 ANALYZE: Investigate to Identify Causes GoalIdentify root causes and confirm them with dataOutputA theory that has been tested and confirmed51CONTROLDEFINEIMPROVEMEASURE42ANALYZE3
14 ANALYZE, cont. Approach Develop a focused problem statement Brainstorm potential causesUse statistical methods to quantify cause-effect relationshipCollect dataOrganize potential causes
15 ANALYZE, cont.ToolsCause-and-effect diagrams or other tools that show potential causesTree diagramCause-and-effect diagrams and tree diagrams are perhaps the most common tools used to depict the links between root causes and their effects on an identified problem. Laying out potential causes in this way helps you make sure you haven’t overlooked important causes, and encourages you to dive deep into underlying causes. The deeper you can push for causes, the more likely your solutions will be long-lasting.Other tools you can use to depict potential cause relationships include relations diagrams and affinity diagrams.
16 ANALYZE, cont.ToolsScatter plots that show the relationship between two variables can help verify causal relationshipsStratified frequency plots can also confirm patternsMade the saleDid not make the saleScatter plots are one of the few data tools that let you examine two measurable characteristics at the same time—and therefore see the relationship between the two.Stratified frequency plots are created from data on one characteristic or outcome (such as “time with customer,” shown above) that has been sorted into categories. As with scatter plots, they help you understand relationships that can confirm underlying causes of problems.
17 IMPROVE: Implement Solutions & Evaluate Results GoalDevelop, try out, and implement solutions that address root causesUse data to evaluate both the solutions and the plans used to carry them outOutputPlanned, tested actions that eliminate or reduce the impact of the identified root causesBefore and After data analysis that shows how much of the initial gap was closedA comparison of the plan to actual implementation51CONTROLDEFINEIMPROVEMEASURE42ANALYZE3
18 IMPROVE, cont.ApproachBrainstorm many possible solutions to identified root causesSelect solution(s)Develop plan(s)Pilot plan(s)Implement plan(s)Quantify resultsEvaluate the benefits of the improvement
19 IMPROVE, cont. Tools Prioritization matrix Responsibility chart A prioritization matrix is a tool that helps you objectively evaluate alternative solutions. The key is reaching consensus on the relative importance of different criteria first, then scoring the alternatives against those criteria.Responsibility charts and Gantt charts help you keep track of your implementation plans.Ranking the alternatives to sort out good ideas from effective ideas
20 IMPROVE, cont. Tools Gantt chart Reduce Call Transfers Update extension listsID123456789Dept supv. update job responsibility listsMark responsibilities on phone ext. listUpdate names and extension numbersRevise auto-attendantAssemble teamExamine dataDecide what options should be givenPilot and test new languageTask Name5/316/76/146/21MAYJUNE6/28Calvin, Max, SherylMariaCalvinTeam, TBD
21 IMPROVE, cont.ToolsProcess behavior charts or time series plots showing both past and present performance of the indicatorRevised Pareto chart from MEASURE that confirms reduction of the root causesBeforeAfterGood}Improvement}Remaining GapChanges implementedTargetTimeSince time plots and control charts show plots of results as time passes, they are excellent tools for seeing whether a solution has had any real, lasting effect on your processComparing Before and After Pareto charts is another way to objectively see how much progress has been made
22 IMPROVE, cont.ToolsRevised Process performance calculations showing new process capability (sigma)The true gauge of the effectiveness of any solution will show up in the new process sigma level.
23 CONTROL: Standardize & Make Future Plans GoalMaintain the gains by MISTAKE PROOFING andstandardizing work methods or processesAnticipate future improvements and preserve the lessons from this effortOutputDocumentation of the new methodTraining in the new methodA system for monitoring its consistent use and for checking the resultsCompleted documentation and communication of results, learnings, and recommendations12345DEFINEMEASUREANALYZEIMPROVECONTROL
24 CONTROL, cont. Approach Develop and document standard practices Train Perform ongoing monitoringBuild process for updating proceduresSummarize and communicate learningsMake recommen-dations for future plans
25 CONTROL, cont. Tools Training Process management “Conspicuous standards” that make new methods obviousTrainingMany tools help you monitor and control processes. Simply thinking in terms of Plan-Do- Check-Act (PDCA)—or in this case, SDCA (Standardize-Do-Check-Act)—creates a mentality of constantly checking the effectiveness of current methods. Training ensures consistency of application, as do “conspicuous standards” that make it easy for people to do the job correctly.“Kanban” is the Japanese for indicator(s)
26 CONTROL, cont. Tools Process Management Chart Self-Audit Question: Knowledge/UnderstandingNo(Never)MostlySome-timesYes(Always)1.Have the performers seen the writtenprocedure?2.Are the performers literate in thelanguage of the procedure?3.Do the performers have a commonunderstanding of the words in theProcess Management charts document your PDCA—the Plan for Doing the work, how to Check the results, and how to Act if something undesirable or unexpected shows upA self-audit is a tool for checking how well and how consistently the new standards are being applied
27 CONTROL, cont. Tools PDCA Report / Storyboard Any kind of documentation that helps you communicate effectively with the rest of the organization can be used in CONTROL. Typical documents include a succinct final report and a completed “storyboard” that captures the project in graphics.The PDCA wheel is simply a reminder to think of improvement as continuous: where can you go next to make the process even better?
28 DMAIC Review 1 2 3 4 5 DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL DEFINE: Define the Project• Define the project’s purpose and scope and get background on the process and customerMEASURE: Measure the Current Situation• Focus the improvement effort by gathering information on the current situationANALYZE: Analyze to Identify Causes• Identify root causes and confirm them with dataIMPROVE: Implement Solutions & Evaluate Results• Develop, try out, and implement solutions that address root causes• Use data to evaluate both the solutions and the plans used to carry them outCONTROL: Standardize & Make Future Plans• Maintain the gains by standardizing work methods or processes• Anticipate future improvements and preserve the lessons from this effort