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1. Preventing Disasters Chapter 11 covers the processes to take to prevent a disaster. The most prudent actions include Implement redundant hardware Implement.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Preventing Disasters Chapter 11 covers the processes to take to prevent a disaster. The most prudent actions include Implement redundant hardware Implement."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Preventing Disasters Chapter 11 covers the processes to take to prevent a disaster. The most prudent actions include Implement redundant hardware Implement redundant services Using Clustering Redundant Hardware To prevent data loss from disk failure you can implement RAID RAID is a system in which multiple disks are combined into a single logical unit in which the failure of a single disk does not result in data loss RAID 1 and RAID 5 are the most common RAID configurations RAID 1 is mirroring RAID 5 is true RAID striping with parity 2

3 Preventing Disasters (2) Redundant Services Exchange Server 2003 relies on network services to function properly DNS With no DNS Exchange is unavailable to deliver mail to external sites DNS fault tolerance is achieved by having at least two DNS servers available on the network and configuring Exchange to use both DNS servers DNS is used to find Domain Controllers for authentication Active Directory Users cannot authenticate with Active Directory At least two Domain Controllers should be configured to ensure fault tolerance 3

4 Preventing Disasters (3) Clustering Active/Active Clustering - Exchange 2003 is configured and running on at least two servers Each node actively responds to user requests and manages messages When one server fails the other takes over its tasks Cost effective because all hardware is being utilized Active/Passive Clustering Exchange is installed on up to eight servers Runs on only up to seven servers When an active server fails one of the inactive servers takes its place More scalable More expensive 4

5 Planning for Disaster Recovery Overview Properly planning for disaster recovery is essential to successful disaster recovery Without the right information even a complete backup of the Exchange Server 2003 databases is not enough to bring Exchange back online There are several key tasks involved in disaster recovery planning Documentation Document system version and service packs Document server network configuration, including IP address and DNS servers Exchange Server 2003 Service Packs Name of the Exchange organization Name of the administrative group in which the server is located Names of the storage grops on the server Names of the logical databases in the storage groups on the server 5

6 Planning for Disaster Recovery (2) Logging A set of log files is maintained for each storage group on an Exchange 2003 All databases changes for a storage group are written to a log file(s) before the database is updated Log files are used by Exchange 2003 to keep track of partially completed transaction if a problem occurs Circular Logging removes information from the log files after it is committed to the database If circular logging is used the system can only be restored to the point of the last backup 6

7 Planning for Disaster Recovery (3) Log File Location Log files should be stored on physically different drives from database to aid recovery If stored on the same drive Exchange is only recoverable to the most recent backup If kept on separate drives Exchange can be restored to the point just before the failure occurred Backup Scheduling Ideally a full backup should be performed every night Administrators should confirm backups ran successfully and logging where successful backups are kept Monitoring and logging backups ensures that they are available when required 7

8 Planning for Disaster Recovery (4) Available Disk Space Repairing databases requires free disk space equivalent to the database plus about 10 extra percent for working space on the drive Another suggestion is to keep free disk space on each Exchange 2003 server equivalent to the largest storage group on the server Written Instructions Ensure that there are written instructions on how to perform restores on Servers Storage Groups Databases Mailboxes Written instructions limit the amount of thinking required to perform a recovery Be sure to test the instructions before publishing them 8

9 Backing up Exchange Server 2003 Overview Backup is an essential step in disaster recovery Important concepts Database backups Backup software What to Backup Offline backups Full-Text Indexes Database Backups Full Backup Takes a copy of the database files and transaction logs Clears the transaction logs off of the hard drive If transaction logs are not clear they become too big and will eventually force Exchange to shut down Full backups can restore storage groups No other backups are necessary with a full backup Differential Backup Does not take a copy of the database files Does not remove transaction logs from the hard drive Smaller and Faster than a full backup Only the most recent differential backup and full backup are required to restore Exchange successfully Incremental Backup Does not take a copy of the database files Takes a copy of the transaction logs and removes the transaction logs from the hard drive Can be used partway through the day to supplement a daily full backup Incremental backups must be used in conjunction with a full backup The full backup and incremental backups performed since the full back are required to restore it 9

10 Backing up Exchange Server 2003 (2) Backup Software Standard version of NT Backup and most third party cannot backup Exchange while it is running An updated version of NT Backup is installed when Exchange databases and transaction logs while Exchange is running Updated version of NT Backup uses the Exchange backup API Third party apps that can back up and restore individual messages perform what is called a brick-level backup and restore. Some third party apps use the new Volume Shadow Copy service to perform backups Does not slow down performance Takes a snapshot and backup is performed on the backup 10

11 Backing up Exchange Server 2003 (3) What to Backup OS directories System state System state is a set of data residing within several important but disparate components that are required for recovery Exchange Server 2003 folders (except the databases and log files) Exchange database and log files Cluster quorum(if in a cluster) Cluster disk signatures (if in a cluster) Offline Backups Offline backups are performed by taking a copy of the Exchange database and transaction logs when the Exchange services are stopped Services must be stopped Users cannot access services while they are stopped Offline backup does not remove transaction logs Can be used if third party backup solution does not support Exchange backup API NT backup is always preferred for online backups 11

12 Backing up Exchange Server 2003 (4) Full-Text Indexes It is not necessary to back up indexes because they contain redundant information that is already contained in the databases 12

13 Restoring a Failed Exchange 2003 Server Overview Only necessary when server has experienced a catastrophic failure Identical hardware is not necessary for restore of full backup Requires same drive letters Requires identical OS patching to original server Restore Process Install the same version of Windows on new or repaired hardware with a temporary name Server should not be joined to domain Install all Windows service packs to match the failed server Restore the last operating system backup from the old server, including the system state Restores computer name to the same name as the failed server Install Exchange 2003 in disaster recovery mode. Accomplished by using /disasterrecovery switch Prevents Information Stores from being mounted after installation N.B. During installation, ensure that select only components that were installed on the failed server Place the databases and log files in the same location as they were located on the failed server Using disaster recovery mode, install all service packs for Exchange Server 2003 to match the failed server Restore the latest version of database files that are available 13

14 Restoring a Corrupted Exchange 2003 Store Overview Involves restoring current transaction logs Current transaction logs are replayed after the databases are restored, no information is lost The store that is being restored must be dismounted first Restore Process Database files from backup are copied back to disk The log files are copied to a temporary directory A restore.env file is created in the same temporary directory as log files. Restore.env is used to control the restore process and applies to a single store Exchange stores must be restored one at a time or they may be overwritten Hard recovery is performed Hard recovery plays the transaction logs that were restored Triggered by checking Last Restore Set check box Option should not be checked if additional incremental or differential restores of transaction logs are required Soft recovery is performed Replays the current transaction logs and makes the store information current to the point of failure The temporary directory with transaction log files is removed 14

15 Restoring an Exchange Mailbox or Message Overview Reasons to recover a mailbox or message Reviewing deleted message as part of a legal action Retrieving accidentally deleted messages Allowing a manager to review the mail of a terminated employee Methods Recovering Deleted Items in Outlook Web Access Message deleted from Inbox or other folder in Outlook is placed in the Deleted Items folder Messages deleted from the Deleted Items folder it is no longer visible to the user but still available to be restored The length of time deleted items are retained is configurable by the Exchange Administrator Reattaching Mailboxes Mailboxes that are deleted accidentally or belong to a terminated employee can be restored User Id should be recreated Deleted mailboxes are retained for 30 days Deleted mailboxes can be attached to a new or recreated user account Mailboxes can be attached to a different account if a manager/administrator needs to review the contents after a user is dismissed Using an Alternate Recovery Forest An alternate recovery forest is at least a single server that contains a copy of your entire Exchange organization Alternate recovery forests are completely separate from the production environment and is used for testing and recovery purposes Advantages Provides the ability to perform restores of public folders Allows testing of backup integrity without affecting the production environment Allows mailbox recovery even after retention period has expired Can act as a test environment for service packs and third party add-ons Disadvantages Cost and time related to maintaining separate hardware Using the Recovery Storage Group 15

16 Restoring Clustered Exchange Servers Overview Restoring clustered Exchange 2003 severs varies depending on the error Process to restore clustered Exchange is the same as non- clustered server Restoring failed sever is a faster process to fix because services on failed server start up on the other servers in the cluster No need to restore server in exactly the same state before failure because the cluster operates the same without it. 16

17 Restoring Clustered Exchange Servers (2) Recovery Steps Use Cluster Administrator to remove the failed server from the cluster Build a new server to replace the old server Join the new server to the cluster Install Exchange 2003 on the new server Move resources back to the new server or leave it as a passive node in the cluster. 17

18 Summary Disasters with Exchange Server 2003 can be prevented using: Redundant Hardware RAID 1 RAID 5 Power Supplies Network Cards Redundant Services DNS Active Directory Clustering Helps limit service outages to a few minutes Can be configured as Active/Active or Active/Passive 18

19 Summary (2) It is important to plan properly for disaster recovery Configuration Documentation Choosing a logging method Separating Log Files and Databases Having a consistent backup schedule Ensuring enough free space for disaster recovery Preparing detail written instructions for disaster recovery Exchange keeps transaction logs until a full backup is performed Circular logging deleted transaction logs after their contents have been committed to the database. 19

20 Summary (3) Full, Differential and Incremental Backups Full backup of Exchange Server 2003 takes a copy of the database and the transaction logs, and then deletes the transaction logs from disk. A Differential backup takes a copy of only transaction logs and does not delete the transaction logs from disk. An incremental backup takes a copy of only the transaction logs and deletes the transaction lgos from disks 20

21 Summary (4) Backup Solutions Exchange Server 2003 includes an updated version of NT Backup that is able to back up Exchange stores while Exchange services are running by using the Exchange backup API Third party solutions can perform brick level backups and Volume Shadow Copies Backups of Exchange should include the following OS directories System state Exchange 2003 folders with Database and logs Exchange stores Cluster quorum and cluster disk signatures 21

22 Summary (5) An offline backup is a copy of the Exchange databases taken when the Exchange Services are stopped Used if a third party backup software does not support the Exchange API A failed exchange server can be restored by reinstalling Windows and Exchange Server 2003 Use Disaster/Recovery switch A corrupted Exchange Server 2003 store can be restored with windows NT backup Hard Recovery replays the stored transaction logs performed automatically unless Last Recovery Set box is unchecked Soft Recovery replays the current transaction logs, runs automatically after hard recovery 22

23 Summary (6) Messages and mailboxes can be restored by Recovering deleted items in Outlook Reattaching a mailbox to a user account, Using an alternate recovery forest Using the recovery storage group An alternate recovery forest is a copy of the Exchange organization that is completely separate from the production environment Allows restores of public of public folders Allows testing of backup integrity Allows mailbox recovery after retention period has expired Can act as a test environment for service packs 23

24 Summary (7) The Recovery storage group is a new feature in Exchange Server 2003 Recovers storage group is a stoage group that can be added any existing Exchange Server The only utility that can retrieve messages from the recovery storage group is ExMerge Clustered Exchange servers are restored by rebuilding them as a new cluster server. 24

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