Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Islamic Civilization Byzantine Empire Damascus Baghdad Jerusalem

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Islamic Civilization Byzantine Empire Damascus Baghdad Jerusalem"— Presentation transcript:

1 Islamic Civilization Byzantine Empire Damascus Baghdad Jerusalem
Arabian Peninsula Medina Mecca Islamic Civilization


3 Basics of Islam Origins Beliefs Spread Deity: Allah (God)
Prophet: Muhammad Where: Northern Africa, Southwest Asia, Southern Spain Holy Book: Quran Holy Cities: Mecca Medina Jerusalem Moral Code: 5 pillars When: A.D. Other Holy People: same as Judaism & Christianity

4 Factors that Enabled Islam to Spread Over Great Distances Despite Harsh Environments
Islam becomes a major religion in less than 100 years. Trade Routes Nomadic Lifestyle Weak Neighbors Nomadic Lifestyle Herders and traders spread the word Trade Routes Crossroads of Asian, European, and African land and sea trade. Weak Neighbors Persian & Roman Empires had collapsed and Byzantine Empire was declining

5 Language Social Structure
A Short-Lived Empire Due to the many internal, political conflicts of the Muslim Empire, its territory did not stay unified for very long. However, Islamic culture remained a common bond amongst politically divided lands. Language Social Structure Name: Arabic Why this language: language of Quran Benefits: easier communication and trade between different cultures Levels: 1. Muslims Converted Muslims Jews and Christians Non-Muslims Benefits: All areas under Islamic influence had same classes. Rights given to all “People of the Book.”

6 Succession– would should be leader
Damascus is conquered by Muslims. Historical Turning Points of the Islamic World A caliphate is territory ruled by a caliph. Jerusalem is conquered by the Muslims. As “People of the Book”, Jews and Christians are accepted, not forced to convert. Many Jews return to Jerusalem after being exiled by the Byzantines and others. Capital Trade & learning DAMASCUS 1st CALIPHATE JERUSALEM successor Succession– would should be leader Sunni & Shia THE SPLIT

7 Islam to stop spreading North
Caliphs spread Islam through Northern Africa into Spain. Historical Turning Points of the Islamic World French Islam to stop spreading North BATTLE OF TOURS Capital Population increases Trade & learning Mongols create the largest empire in history. Mongols destroyed Baghdad & executed the caliph. Brief Mongol rule. Eventually the Ottoman Turks control much Muslim land. 2nd CALIPHATE BAGHDAD 2nd CALIPHATE ENDS

8 Cultural Achievements of Islamic Civilization Fill in the spaces with detailed information using pages 235, 236, & 246 in your textbook. Architecture Writing Mosque Purpose: Prayer hall where Muslims free themselves from worldly concerns Features: Most have domes and minarets Dome of the Rock City: Jerusalem Location in City: Temple Mount Arabic Alphabet 1. 28 letters, not pictures 2. Written right to left 3. Uniform writing in conquered areas Calligraphy Definition: Artistic handwriting Purpose: Preservation of The Koran

9 Intellectual Achievements of Islamic Civilization
Education Science Medicine Used ancient knowledge and scientific understanding to find new solutions to old problems. Astronomy & Geography Increased trade = more knowledge of land/water Need for precise prayer schedules & direction = astronomical advancements Translations Purpose for translating ancient texts to Arabic: was to preserve the Koran Universities Much emphasis on learning because it improved understanding of the Koran Arabic Numerals Adopted from Indians, including the concept of zero, and later used by Europeans. Math Algebra Muslim scholars discovered many of the basics of Algebra

Download ppt "Islamic Civilization Byzantine Empire Damascus Baghdad Jerusalem"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google