Presentation on theme: "Animal Science 1 Unit 1. Discuss briefly the history of the domestication of farm animals List and explain the functions of livestock Describe the."— Presentation transcript:
Discuss briefly the history of the domestication of farm animals List and explain the functions of livestock Describe the size of the livestock industry in the United States Describe the size of the livestock industry in South Dakota
Important part of farming in the United States People depend upon livestock for food and clothing Livestock production and success depend on many factors Research in animal science is carried on by many state universities and the USDA.
Table 1-4 Look at which states are leaders. Why do you think those states hold the position they do? What things about those states make them leaders?
Jan 1, 2009 ◦ 8 th All Cattle and Calves ◦ 5 th Beef Cows that have calved ◦ 6 th Calves Born ◦ 7 th Cattle/Calves on Feed- All Feedlots & Steers 500 lbs and more ◦ 5 th All Sheep and Lambs ◦ 2 nd Lambs Born ◦ 9 th Pigs Born (2008) ◦ 1 st Bison
Changes in lifestyle and eating habits of people in the United States has a significant impact on the production, processing and marketing of animal products. WHY???? What trends are we seeing in the way we eat?
Why has consumption of red meat declined? What types of meat have seen an increase in consumption? What has been done by producer organizations? What influences eating habits? What nutritional concerns are driving consumer choices?
How are most hogs raised in the United States? How is most poultry raised? What about beef? Dairy?
Questions about the ethics of animal use date back to the time of the ancient Greeks Until recently most people were directly engaged in agriculture and understood that proper care resulted in greater productivity During the 20 th Century fewer people had direct contact with animals and little understanding of the care and management of animals as practiced in modern agriculture. This has provided an opportunity for those opposed to the use of animals There is a significant difference between those people who are concerned about animal welfare and those who believe in animal rights.
Supporters emphasize humane treatment of animals Believe that animals can be used to benefit humans Some take the position that there are essential (food, medical research) and non-essential (entertainment) uses Livestock producers support proper feeding, housing, vet care and good management practices because these result in greater productivity.
Views vary. Some advocate the total elimination of all animal use by humans. Others focus on eliminating animal suffering to the greatest extent possible. Those who take a moderate approach try to achieve their goals by influencing legislation and through public education campaigns.
Use of hormones, antibiotics and additives in animal feed Caging of laying hens Production of veal calves in crates Raising swine in confinement and farrowing crates for sows Management practices such as castration, docking, debeaking and dehorning Having animals as household pets Using animals in medical and scientific research Consuming animal flesh Using animal skins for clothing or other products Use of animal products (milk, eggs) for food Making animals the target for trapping or hunting Featuring animals in entertainment activities such as horse and dog racing
Laws are enforced by The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the USDA First federal law dealing with the humane treatment of animals was passed in 1873. Other legislation can be found on page 23 of the text.
Currently a variety of methods. The USDA is developing a database of information about individual animals. They would like to make this system mandatory To learn more about NAIS please visit www.animalagriculture.org www.animalagriculture.org
Becoming a major area of concern Consumers want 0 health risk in relation to their food Food safety is defined in terms of risk benefit Most food borne illnesses are caused by bacteria (66%) Other sources are chemical (25%), viral (5%), parasitic (4%) See p. 25-31
Domestication of animals was vital to civilization Animals have many useful functions Livestock numbers on farms in the US is in the several billions and expected to continued to increase
Complete review questions 1-12 Due Friday August 27 at the end of the period.