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Overview of most common cardiovascular diseases Ahmad Osailan.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of most common cardiovascular diseases Ahmad Osailan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of most common cardiovascular diseases Ahmad Osailan

2 Objectives Most common cardiac diseases Signs and symptoms

3 Most common terms for symptoms of cardiac Disease Dyspnea: Abnormally uncomfortable awareness of breathing. PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL DYSPNEA: Interstitial or interalveolar pulmonary edema Orthopnea: Inability to breath comfortably when lying. Syncope: Loss of consciousness commonly from reduced perfusion to the brain. Fatigue: Patient with impaired cardiovascular function - decrease peripheral perfusion

4 What is Heart Disease A general term that covers a number of diseases which affect the heart, including coronary artery disease, heart-failure and angina.



7 CORONARY (ISCHAEMIC)HEART DISEASE Occurs when the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle become blocked. Partially blocked it causes angina. Fully blocked it causes a myocardial infarction or a heart attack!

8 CORONARY (ISCHAEMIC)HEART DISEASE CAUSE‡ Atherosclerosis: it is the accumulation of lipids in the arterial walls due to variety of factors. It can lead to vascular thrombosis (clots)and result in embolism

9 Atheroscelerosis

10 CORONARY (ISCHAEMIC)HEART DISEASE Signs and symptoms: Cardiac ischemia in itself is symptomless. Its presence is manifested only by its dramatic complications namely:-‡ ANGINA PECTORIS ‡MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION ‡IHD often comes without warning or history of heart disease.

11 Angina Pectoris It is a severe paroxysmal chest pain caused due to higher myocardial oxygen demand. Cause: Partial blockage of coronary artery by atheroscelerosis.

12 Angina Pectoris Signs and Symptoms: Strangling, or tightness, heaviness, compression of the chest Pain radiating to the left arm or jaw. ‡Exaggerated by physical exertion especially in cold weather and emotional stress.‡ Pain is relieved by rest

13 Angina

14 Myocardial infarction when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies.

15 MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Also called ( Heart attack ) Signs and symptoms: Strangling, or tightness, heaviness, compression of the chest Pain radiating to the left arm or jaw. Precipitated by physical exertion and emotional stress.‡ Pain is NOT relieved by rest. Unlike angina ‡Persist for a few hours if death does not supervene.

16 What differ Angina form MI Signs and symptoms: The pain of MI may sometimes start at rest and is not relieved by nitrates.‡ Vomiting, facial pallor sweating, restlessness, apprehension are common.‡ Restlessness, cough, loss of consciousness may also occur.

17 HYPERTENSION When either or both systolic or diastolic pressure are persistently raised, & on remeasurement, with systolic pressure >140 &diastolic >90 mm Hg

18 Features of advanced hypertension SYMPTOMS ‡Headaches‡ Visual disorders ‡Tinnitus ‡Dizziness ‡Angina

19 CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE Signs and symptoms: ‡Most striking feature: CYANOSIS‡ Passage of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle directly into the left side of the heart & systemic circulation leads to chronic hypoxemia. ‡Chronic hypoxemia causes severely impaired development & often gross clubbing of fingers & toes.

20 Congenital Heart Disease

21 Clubbing One of the most common Signs of congenital heart disease

22 Heart valves disease Caused mainly by: Infective endocarditis Causative organisms: streptoco cci ‡It results from two main predisposing factors: bacteraemia cardiac lesion

23 Heart Valve diseases Signs and symptoms: Shortness of breath Weakness or dizziness. Weaknessdizziness Discomfort in your chest. Palpitations. This may feel like a rapid heart rhythm, irregular heartbeat, skipped beats or a flip-flop feeling in your chest. Palpitations Swelling of your ankles, feet or abdomen. This is called edema. Swelling may occur in your belly, which may cause you to feel bloated.edema Rapid weight gain. A weight gain of two or three pounds in one day is possible.weight gain

24 HEART FAILURE Heart failure is when the pumping actionof the heart is insufficient to meet the body¶s demand. Signs and symptoms: Shortness of Breath Generalized Oedema Easy fatigability


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