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Chapter 13 & 14 Software Testing Strategies and Techniques

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1 Chapter 13 & 14 Software Testing Strategies and Techniques
Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, 6th edition by Roger S. Pressman

2 Software Testing Testing is the process of exercising a
program with the specific intent of finding errors prior to delivery to the end user.

3 What Testing Shows errors requirements conformance performance
an indication of quality

4 Who Tests the Software? developer independent tester
Understands the system Must learn about the system, but, will test "gently" but, will attempt to break it and, is driven by "delivery" and, is driven by quality

5 Validation vs Verification
Verification – Are we building the product right? Is the code correct with respect to its specification? Validation – Are we building the right product? Does the specification reflect what it should?

6 Testing Strategy unit test integration test system validation test

7 Testing Strategy Begin with unit testing and work your way up to system testing. Unit testing – test individual components (modules in procedural languages; classes in OO languages) Integration testing – test collections of components that must work together Validation testing – test the application as a whole against user requirements System testing – test the application in the context of an entire system

8 Unit Testing module to be tested results software engineer test cases

9 Unit Testing module to be tested interface local data structures
boundary conditions independent paths error handling paths test cases

10 Unit Test Environment test cases RESULTS driver Module stub stub
interface local data structures Module boundary conditions independent paths error handling paths stub stub test cases RESULTS

11 Integration Testing Strategies
Options: • the “big bang” approach • an incremental construction strategy

12 Top Down Integration A top module is tested with stubs B F G
stubs are replaced one at a time, "depth first" C as new modules are integrated, some subset of tests is re-run D E

13 Bottom-Up Integration
F G drivers are replaced one at a time, "depth first" C worker modules are grouped into builds and integrated D E cluster

14 Regression Testing The selective retesting of a modified system to help ensure that no bugs have been introduced during modification. Fixing one part of the code can break another

15 High Order Testing Validation testing System testing
Focus is on software requirements System testing Focus is on system integration Alpha/Beta testing Focus is on customer usage Recovery testing forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed Security testing verifies that protection mechanisms built into a system will, in fact, protect it from improper penetration Stress testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity, frequency, or volume Performance Testing test the run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system

16 What is a “Good” Test? A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an error.

17 Test Case Design "Bugs lurk in corners and congregate at
boundaries ..." Boris Beizer OBJECTIVE to uncover errors CRITERIA in a complete manner CONSTRAINT with a minimum of effort and time

18 Exhaustive Testing There are 10 possible paths! If we execute one
loop < 20 X 14 There are 10 possible paths! If we execute one test per millisecond, it would take 3,170 years to test this program!!

19 Selective Testing Selected path loop < 20 X

20 Software Testing white-box black-box methods methods Methods

21 White-Box Testing ... our goal is to ensure that all
statements and conditions have been executed at least once ...

22 Why Cover? logic errors and incorrect assumptions
are inversely proportional to a path's execution probability we often believe that a path is not likely to be executed; in fact, reality is often counter intuitive typographical errors are random; it's likely that untested paths will contain some

23 Basis Path Testing First, we compute the cyclomatic complexity:
number of simple decisions + 1 or number of enclosed areas + 1 In this case, V(G) = 4

24 Cyclomatic Complexity
A number of industry studies have indicated that the higher V(G), the higher the probability or errors. modules V(G) modules in this range are more error prone

25 Basis Path Testing Next, we derive the independent paths:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 independent paths: Since V(G) = 4, there are four paths Path 1: 1,2,3,6,7,8 Path 2: 1,2,3,5,7,8 Path 3: 1,2,4,7,8 Path 4: 1,2,4,7,2,4,...7,8 Finally, we derive test cases to exercise these paths.

26 Basis Path Testing Notes
you don't need a flow chart, but the picture will help when you trace program paths count each simple logical test, compound tests count as 2 or more basis path testing should be applied to critical modules

27 Black-Box Testing requirements output input events

28 Equivalence Partitioning
user queries output formats FK input mouse picks data prompts

29 Sample Equivalence Classes
Valid data user supplied commands responses to system prompts file names computational data physical parameters bounding values initiation values output data formatting responses to error messages graphical data (e.g., mouse picks) Invalid data data outside bounds of the program physically impossible data proper value supplied in wrong place

30 Boundary Value Analysis
user queries output formats FK input mouse picks data prompts output domain input domain

31 OOT Methods: Behavior Testing
The tests to be designed should achieve all state coverage [KIR94]. That is, the operation sequences should cause the Account class to make transition through all allowable states

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