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Chapter 3: Risk Management

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1 Chapter 3: Risk Management

2 Risk Management What is Risk Management (RM)?
Making pre-loss arrangements for post-loss resources The logical approach to financing and controlling loss exposures

3 The RM Function The staff varies based on size and responsibility
All firms and people engage in risk management Career opportunities in profit and non-profit organizations Occupation is professionally recognized – RIMS – Risk and Insurance Management Society

4 RM Statement of Objectives and Principles
Distinguish between pre-loss and post-loss objectives Pre-loss objectives Survival and growth Compliance with government regulations Efficiency Procedures and principles are implemented and followed

5 RM Statement of Objectives and Principles
Post-loss objectives Survive the loss Provide a foundation to grow and prosper Behave responsibly as a good corporate citizen Risk Management Manual Written to articulate goals, standards, how to measure results and provide benchmarks

6 Steps in the Pre-loss Risk Management Process
Identify & Measure (evaluate) Choose most efficient tool(s) for Loss Control Loss Financing Implement and review

7 Step 1 - Identify What to identify: How to identify Direct losses
Indirect losses Key personnel Operations How to identify Balance sheet Income statement Other records Checklists Flow charts Questionnaires

8 Measure (evaluation) Maximum possible loss Maximum probable loss
The absolute maximum dollar amount of damage Maximum probable loss A conservative estimate of what is likely to occur in a worst case loss Relative Frequency An estimate (numerical or verbal) as to the number of times the loss will occur

9 Valuing Property Replacement value versus book value versus actual cash value versus market value International operations and exchange rate problems The impact of inflation on values

10 Loss of Income Definition Sources of Loss Problems
Can be seasonal in nature Difficult to measure Best measurement still can only be an estimate

11 Liability Losses Examples of loss sources
Bodily injury or personal injury Property damage to real or personal property Intentional damage to reputation Wrongful hiring, firing, sexual harassment, invasion of privacy, age discrimination Vicarious liability Products, environmental, workers’ compensation

12 Losses to Key or other Personnel
Death Disability – physical (medical) or mental Short or long term Permanent or temporary Loss of health Unplanned retirement Results in loss of income, business continuation problems, replacement and training issues

13 Step 2 -Decide How to Handle
A ---- Avoid R ---- Retain T ---- Transfer Insurance Non-insurance

14 Selecting the Risk Management Technique
Frequency Low High S L Assume Loss Prevention e o Loss prevention loss reduction v w Loss reduction assume risk e r h Insure Avoid i i risk transfer loss prevention t g loss reduction loss reduction y h loss prevention

15 Loss Control - Prevention
Loss Prevention Take various steps to reduce the probability of losses occurring How do you value the loss of life in the cost / benefit equation?

16 Government and Loss Prevention
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 (CPSA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (Superfund) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The Clean Air Act The Water Pollution Control Act

17 Loss Control - Reduction
Loss Reduction Steps designed to reduce the severity Take steps to reduce the damage before and after a loss

18 Self-insurance - loss financing
What is self-insurance? Why do companies self-insure? Save money Better control Loss prevention incentives Improved claims settlement Profitability and investment earnings Difference between self-insurance and risk assumption

19 Captive Insurance Companies
A method of self-insuring A company formed to write insurance for a parent company Motives for starting a captive Save the overhead and profits of the insurance company Earn investment income on the premium Tax advantages

20 Other Risk Management Tools
Risk Transfer Hold harmless agreements - transfer of risk through a contract Hedging - take equal but opposite position on an even based on chance Financial risk management - techniques to deal with interest rate, currency value, and crop price changes Leases - transfers risk of obsolescence

21 Step 3 – Review and Update
Regularly review and update the process New assets or disposal of assets Valuation changes New products and processes, materials New personnel Law changes Currency fluctuations New contractual relationships

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