Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 - Part 2 Protons, neutrons and electrons are all subatomic particles. Protons are positive (+) charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 - Part 2Protons, neutrons and electrons are all subatomic particles.Protons are positive (+) charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom.Proton mass = x 10-24g1 proton = +1 ChargeNucleusProtonNeutronElectron
2 The Neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus. 1 neutron = no chargeThe neutron was discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick.Its mass is almost the same as a proton.
3 The ElectronThe electron is a subatomic particle found outside of the nucleus of an atom and it has a negative (-) charge.Electrons mass = 9.11 x 10-28g1 electron = -1 charge
4 Charge A proton has a positive charge +1 An electron has a negative charge -1A neutron is neutral. It won’t affect overall charge.One positive proton will cancel out one negative electron leaving an overall charge of Zero+1-1Overall Charge = 0
6 The Periodic TableElements are organized into rows and columns based on their atomic number.
7 Elements, symbols and masses atomicnumberchemicalsymbolnamemass
8 Atomic Number Atomic number = # of protons for an element. Atoms of different elements has different numbers of protons.Each positive charged proton must be balanced by a negative charged electron. So the atomic # lets you know the # of protons and the # of electrons.Example: Sulfur (S) is atomic number 16 because it has 16 protons. Since it has 16 protons it has to have 16 electrons.
9 Mass NumberThe mass number lets you figure out how many neutrons are present in an element.Mass # = # of protons + # of neutrons or m=p+nNeutrons = mass # - atomic # since the atomic number is the same as the number of protons then n=m-p
10 Mass number continued… Example: Aluminum (Al) has 13 protons.Its mass number is 27.So, 27-13=14 and 14 is the number of neutrons found in an atom of Aluminum.
11 Protons and Neutrons = 1 amu each Atomic Mass UnitsAn atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as 1/12th of a Carbon-12 atom.AMU’s is the unit of mass used on the periodic table when looking at an elements atomic mass number.That's about the mass of one proton or neutron.Protons and Neutrons = 1 amu each1 AMUU
12 AMU’s continued… 1 atomic mass unit = 1.66053886 × 10-24 kg One gram is about 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 amu.Ex: Fluorine’s (F) atomic mass is 19 amu, but it’s mass in grams is x grams.Wow--I can see why you'd want to use amu's instead of grams.
13 What is the atomic mass of an atom with… 4 protons and 5 neutrons =24 protons and 28 neutrons =7 protons and 7 neutrons =91 protons and 140 neutrons =
14 Complete the table below: ProtonsNeutronsAtomic Mass35651020397089
15 IsotopesIsotopes are atoms of the same element but have a different number of neutrons and mass number.Example: Oxygen (O) has 8 protons but some atoms of oxygen have a mass # of 16, 17 or 18.So this means the number of neutrons varies between each isotope. So Oxygen-16 has 8 neutrons, Oxygen-17 has 9 neutrons and Oxygen-18 has 10 neutrons.
16 Common IsotopesThe element Carbon (C) can be found as C12, C13 and C14.How many protons, neutrons and electrons does each carbon isotope above have?Answer: C12 – 6,6,6C13 – 6,7,6C14 – 6,8,6
17 Hydrogen Isotopes Hydrogen-1 doesn’t have any neutrons. Hydrogen-2 has 1 neutronHydrogen-3 has 2 neutrons